العراق « ƆAL-CIRĀQ »
— Also: Iraq.
— Officially: الجمهورية العراق « ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ ɔal-Cirāq »; Komara Iraqê.
— Seat of government: بغداد « Bağdād ».
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: Parliament is elected through party-list proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister by simple majority; but the prime minister must first be nominated by the ceremonial president, who is chosen by parliament through a supermajority; in practice, then, a supermajority is required to form a government.
— Chief governing party: الإئتلاف دولة القانون « ɔal-Ɔỉtlāf Daŭlaḧ ɔal-Qānūn » (notably including الدعوة ɔal-Dacŭaḧ).
— Heads of government: حيدر العبادي « Hajdar ɔal-Cabādī », الدعوة ɔal-Dacŭaḧ, prime minister; Fuad Mehsûm, president.
— Other parliamentary parties: كتلة الأحرار « Kutlaḧ al-Ɔahrār »; ائتلاف المواطن « Ɔỉtlāf ɔal-Mūātin »; ائتلاف متحدون للاصلاح « Ɔỉtlāf Mut:ahidūn lil-Ɔislāh »; ائتلاف الوطنية « Ɔỉtlāf ɔal-Ŭatanīaḧ »; Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê; Yekîtiya Niştimanî ya Kurdistanê; إئتلاف العربية « Ɔỉtlāf ɔal-Carabīaḧ »; Bizûtinewey Gorran.
— Assessment: Zone of mixed control; democratic, amid persistent, severe guerrilla and terrorist violence, which has necessitated outside security support. Autocrat صدام حسين « Sad:ām Husajn » (1968-2003) ran the world’s most oppressive state; he was executed after one of many trials for mass murder. After his removal from power by the United States and allies, a new constitution was approved overwhelmingly, which allowed for federalism and the election of a permanent government. Elections under that constitution saw tremendous turnout in all regions and groups; but protests resulted, by those dissatisfied with their expected representation. The division of power among the three main ethno-religious groups, شيعى « Šīcī » and سنى « Sun:ī » اعراب « Ɔacrāb » and Kurds, has been a major political issue and source of conflict. شيعيون « Šīcīūn », as the majority, have dominated the democratic period, and many سنى « Sun:ī » اعراب « Ɔacrāb », remembering their privilege under previous governments, did not accept this change. The result was a long series of terrorist provocations (both secular and religious) directed mostly at شيعيون « Šīcīūn », who generally showed restraint in the beginning. Long-serving prime minister نورى المالكى « Nūrī ɔal-Mālikī » (2006-14) cultivated genuine popularity among شيعيون « Šīcīūn » with his security-oriented approach, which targeted rival شيعى « Šīcī » militias as well as سنى « Sun:ī » terrorists; but his increasingly-autocratic and sectarian behavior aggravated the سنى « Sun:ī » insurgency. He was replaced amid a growing threat from داعش « DĀCiŠ »; all three prime ministers in the new system, though, have come from الدعوة ɔal-Dacŭaḧ, in each case as a condition of removing his predecessor. Two large parts of the recognized territory are governed independently: Kurdistan and الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام « ɔal-Daŭlaḧ ɔal-Ɔislāmīaḧ fī ɔal-Cirāq ŭaɔl-Šām » (both of which see).
— FH: 5-6, not free. Econ: 4.10 (113), hybrid. (For العراق « ɔal-Cirāq » as a whole.)
— Updated: 2014 October 22.