الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام ƆAL-DAŬLAḦ ƆAL-ƆISLĀMĪAḦ FĪ ƆAL-CIRĀQ ŬAƆL-ĀM
Officially: الدولة الإسلامية ɔal-Daŭlaḧ ɔal-Ɔislāmīaḧ .
English: Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS).
Seat of government: الرقة ɔal-Raq:aḧ .
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Theocratic and autocratic government based on personal loyalty to the head of government.
Heads of government: إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي‎ Ɔibrāhīm Caŭād Ɔibrāhīm Calī Muham:ad ɔal-Badrī ɔal-Samar:āỉī (أبو بكر البغدادي Ɔabū Bakr ɔal-Bağdādī ), as claimed خليفة xalīfaḧ .
Assessment: Brutal, repressive theocracy. Led by ابو مصعب الزرقاوي Ɔabū Musacab ɔal-Zarqāŭī from its founding in 1999 (as جماعة التوحيد والجهاد Ĝamācaḧ ɔal-Taŭhīd ŭaɔl-Ĝihād ) until his death in 2006. Previously best known as القاعدة بالعراق ɔal-Qācidaḧ biɔl-Cirāq , and for a time affiliated with القاعدة ɔal-Qācidaḧ and انصار الاسلام Ɔansār ɔal-Ɔislām . Before 2011, fought to impose theocracy and disrupt any legitimate attempt at participatory government in العراق ɔal-Cirāq . Expanded into, and now based out of, the recognized territory of سوريا Sūrīā . In 2014, داعش DĀCi captured الموصل ɔal-Maŭsil , and إبراهيم Ɔibrāhīm declared a خلافة xilāfaḧ with himself as head, and thus claimed leadership of the entire امة Ɔum:aḧ . He was seriously injured by a US strike in 2015, leaving chief deputy أبو علاء العفري Ɔabū Calāɔ ɔal-Cafrī , as effective head of government, but أبو علاء Ɔabū Calāɔ was then reported killed in an air strike himself.
Updated: 2015 May 13.
 

O.T. FORD