الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام ƆAL-DAŬLAḦ ƆAL-ƆISLĀMĪAḦ FĪ ƆAL-CIRĀQ ŬAƆL-ĀM
Officially: الدولة الإسلامية ɔal-Daŭlaḧ ɔal-Ɔislāmīaḧ .
English: Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS).
Seat of government: Unknown.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Theocratic and autocratic government based on personal loyalty to the head of government.
Head of government: إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي‎ Ɔibrāhīm Caŭād Ɔibrāhīm Calī Muham:ad ɔal-Badrī ɔal-Samar:āỉī (أبو بكر البغدادي Ɔabū Bakr ɔal-Bağdādī ), as claimed خليفة xalīfaḧ .
Assessment: Brutal, repressive theocracy. Led by ابو مصعب الزرقاوي Ɔabū Musacab ɔal-Zarqāŭī from its founding in 1999 (as جماعة التوحيد والجهاد Ĝamācaḧ ɔal-Taŭhīd ŭaɔl-Ĝihād ) until his death in 2006. Previously best known as القاعدة بالعراق ɔal-Qācidaḧ biɔl-Cirāq , and for a time affiliated with القاعدة ɔal-Qācidaḧ and انصار الاسلام Ɔansār ɔal-Ɔislām . Before 2011, fought to impose theocracy and disrupt any legitimate attempt at participatory government in العراق ɔal-Cirāq . Expanded into, and then based out of, the recognized territory of سوريا Sūrīā (with its seat in الرقة ɔal-Raq:aḧ ). In 2014, داعش DĀCi captured الموصل ɔal-Maŭsil , and إبراهيم Ɔibrāhīm declared a خلافة xilāfaḧ with himself as head, and thus claimed leadership of the entire امة Ɔum:aḧ . He was seriously injured by a US strike in 2015, leaving chief deputy أبو علاء العفري Ɔabū Calāɔ ɔal-Cafrī , as effective head of government, but أبو علاء Ɔabū Calāɔ was then reported killed in an air strike himself. In 2017, coordinated and independent efforts by numerous military forces cost داعش DĀCi nearly all its territory.
Updated: 2018 January 10.
 

O.T. FORD