Officially: Hikūmetī Herźmī Kurdistan.
English: (Iraqi) Kurdistan.
Seat of government: Hewlźr.
Structure: The president is directly elected. Parliament is elected by party-list proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister.
Governing parties: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanź and Yekītiya Niştimanī ya Kurdistanź.
Heads of government: Nźēīrvan Barzanī, PDK, prime minister; Mesūd Barzanī, leader of PDK; Kosret Resūl Elī, leader of YNK and vice president.
Other parliamentary parties: Bizūtinewey Gorran, led by Newşīrwan Mistefa; Yekgirtiya Īslamī ya Kurdistan; Komela Īslamī le Kurdistan.
Assessment: Secession from العراق « ɔal-Cirāq » during the rule of صدام حسين « Sad:ām Husajn » (1968-2003) was not recognized, though it was a fact. Pźşmerge took الموصل « ɔal-Maŭsil » and Kerkūk in the last battle against صدام « Sad:ām » in 2003, but yielded to US troops under pressure from Türkiye. The state is now occupying a formal place within a federal عراق « Cirāq ». The PDK and YNK ruled separate halves of the seceded territory, but have apparently formed a unified administration. YNK leader Celal Talebanī became ceremonial president (2005-14) of العراق « ɔal-Cirāq ». The status of Kerkūk is a major issue in the current federal government, with بغداد « Bağdād » repeatedly putting off a status referendum that the Kurds seemed likely to win. Mesūd Barzanī (2005-17) of the PDK was elected president in 2009; his term was extended to 2015 by parliament. Gorran emerged as a serious force in the 2009 parliamentary election, and after the 2013 election, it outnumbered the YNK in parliament. The 2014 fall of الموصل « ɔal-Maŭsil » to داعش « DĀCi » strengthened the distinction between Herźmī Kurdistan and العراق « ɔal-Cirāq »; Pźşmerge reoccupied Kerkūk as a justifiable precaution and fought along their long border with داعش « DĀCi ». But a 2017 referendum on independence, which passed overwhelmingly, prompted armed conflict with بغداد « Bağdād » and the loss of most of the new territory, including Kerkūk. Barzanī then officially resigned.
Updated: 2018 January 10.