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LINGUISTIC ZONES OF EARTH

 

O.T. FORD
Updated 2017 September 18

 

Explanation of linguistic zones

Transcription protocols

Names listed below in gold and blue are place names, geographical designations for the linguistic zones. Blue is used for zones broader than mutual intelligibility; gold is for all other zones, whether simple or complex mutual intelligibility. Where such names are not known, the dialect or ethnonym is listed in white.

 

Conventional regions:
North America
South America
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Central and Southern Asia
East Asia
Oceania
Obsolete dialects
Diffuse dialects

 

UNALASKA: UNANGAM TUNUU (Eastern Aleut)
INUIT NUNAAT: INUKTITUT (Inuit continuum)
NUNAVUT: INUKTITUT
NUNAVIK: NUNAVIMMIUTITUT
NUNATSIAVUT: NUNATSIAVUMMIUTUT
KALAALLIT NUNAAT: KALAALLヘSUT (Greenlandic)
DENENDEH: DENE (Athapaskan)
BENTEH: DENA棚NA (Tanaina)
TATL但HWT但ENN NENN: AHTNA
DINノTAH: DINノ BIZAAD (Navajo-Apache)
LINGヘT AANヘ: LINGヘT (Tlingit)
HAIDA GWAII - XAADALA GWAYAAY: XAAT KヘL (Haida)
NUXALK (Bella Coola)
NĒHIYĀNĀHK: NĒHIYAWĒWIN (Cree continuum)
PASKWĀWIYINĪNĀHK: NĒHIYAWĒWIN (Plains Cree)
EEYOU ISTCHEE (Eastern Cree)
NITASKINAN: ATIKAMEKW
NITASSINAN: INNU-AIMUN (Innu or Montagnais)
ANISHINAABEWAKI: ANISHINAABEMOWIN (Chippewa/Ojibwa-Potawatomi)
GRリNLAND: DANSK (Danish in Greenland)
QUノBEC: FRANヌAIS (French)
ACADIE: FRANヌAIS (French in Acadia)
HAUDENOSAUNEEGA (Iroquois)
DUSGA丹WEHONO竪A: SKARURE (Tuscarora)
KANIノN:KE: KANIEN狸ノHA (Mohawk)
GWEU竪WEHONO竪A: GAYOGOHモ:NǪ (Cayuga)
NUNDA淡トONO竪A: ONヨDOWチGA (Seneca)
ONΛYOTA但:KA: ONΛYOTA但:KA (Oneida)
ONUN奪トGAONO竪A: ONヨDOWチGA (Onondaga)
WABANAKI (Abenaki)
MヘKMチKI: MヘKMAWヘSIMK (Micmac)
N奪AKINA: WヤBANAKIヤDWAWヤGAN (Western Abenaki)
PANAヤBSKAIIAK: PENAWAPSKEWI (Penobscot or Eastern Abenaki)
WAPONAHKIK: WOLASTOQIYIK-PESKOTOMUHKATI (Maliseet-Passamoquoddy)
覧覧 WOLASTOKUK: WOLASTOQIYIK (Maliseet)
覧覧 PESKOTOMUHKATIK: PESKOTOMUHKATI (Passamoquoddy)
SHEWANAKI: WAPANAKAMIKOK (Lenape/Delaware, Powhatan, Piscataway, Nanticoke, Wampanoag)
POKANOKET: WヤPANツAK (Wampanoag, Massachusett-Narragansett)
ANGLO-AMERICA: ENGLISH
BILEEZ: KRIOL (English Creole in Belize)
JUMIEKA: PATWA (English Creole in Jamaica)
BARBADOS: BAJAN (English Creole)
GUYANA (English creole)
APSチALOOKE ISSAWUA: APSチALOOKE (Crow)
WAZIJA: HOCĄK (Winnebago)
TSノTHO脱: TSĖHESENĖSTSESTOTSE (Cheyenne)
NIITSIPIIS-STAHKOII: SIKSIKチ (Blackfoot)
NEWE SEGOBIA (Shoshone)
WA SHE SHU E DEH: WASHO
WALATOWA: TOWA (Jemez)
HOPITUTSKWA: HOPILタVAYI (Hopi)
O丹DHAM JEWEḌ: O丹DHAM HA-ムE丹KĬ
TOHONO: O丹DHAM HA-ムE丹KĬ (Tohono Oodham)
SHIWINNAQE: SHIWI (Zui)
NUMUNUU SOOKOBITU: NUMU TEKWAPUHA (Comanche)
*ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᏟᎢ TSALAGI AJETLII: ᏣᎳᎩ TSALAGI (Cherokee)
ME蟹狸O: NAHUATL (Aztec)
YUKATAAN: YUKATEKO (Yucatec)
MISKITIA: MヘSKITU
BORIKノN: TAINO
NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN: NEDERLANDS (Dutch in the Caribbean)
ANTIANAN ULANDES: PAPIAMENTU
AMノRICA LATINA (Romance in the Western Hemisphere)
HISPANOAMノRICA: ESPAムOL-CASTELLANO (Spanish)
ACADIANE: FRANヌAIS (French in Louisiana)
KARAYIB: KREYOL (French Creole in the Caribbean)
覧覧 LOUZYメN: KREYメL (N鑒, French Creole in Louisiana)
覧覧 AYISI: KREYメL (Haiti)
覧覧 GWADLOUP: KREYOL (Guadeloupe)
覧覧 DONMNIK: KWノYメL (Dominica)
覧覧 MATNIK: KREYOL (Martinique)
覧覧 SENT LISI: KWノYメL (Saint Lucia)
GUYANE: FRANヌAIS (French in Guiana)
BRASIL: PORTUGUハS (Portuguese in South America)
WAMPI: WAMPI-MISAMERA-WAM (Guambiano)
PALENGE: LENGUA (Palenquero)
SURINAME: NEDERLANDS (Dutch in Guiana)
SRANAN: SRANAN TONGO
SARNAM: HINDĪ (Hindustānī in Guiana)
TAWANTINSUYU: RUNASIMI (Quechua, or Inca)
QOLLASUYU: AYMAR ARU (Aymara)
PARAGUチI: AVA ムE通 (Guaran)
MAPU: MAPUDUNGU (Mapuche, or Araucanian)
GAELTACHT-GタIDHEALTACHD (Gaelic)
ノIRE: GAEILGE (Gaelic in Ireland)
ALBA: GタIDHLIG (ALBANNACH) (Gaelic in Scotland)
BRITISH ISLES: ENGLISH
SCOTLAND: SCOTS
CYMRU: CYMRAEG (Welsh)
OS AヌORES: PORTUGUハS (Portuguese in the Azores)
ITALIA-GALLIA-IBERIA (Western Romance continuum)
PORTUGALIZA: PORTUGALEGO (Portuguese-Galician)
覧覧 PORTUGAL: PORTUGUハS (Portuguese)
覧覧 GALIZA: GALEGO (Galician)
ESPAムA: ESPAムOL (Spanish)
覧覧 ASTURIES: ASTURIANU-BABLE
覧覧 EHTREMAURA: EHTREMEムU
覧覧 CASTILLA: CASTELLANO
覧覧 ARAGモN: ARAGONノS
覧覧 ספארד *SƏPƆARAD: לדינו LADĪNOŬ (Ladino)
CATALUNYA-OCCITタNIA: CATALタ-OCCITAN
覧覧 CATALUNYA-VALネNCIA: CATALタ-VALENCIタ (Catalan)
覧覧覧 CATALUNYA: CATALタ (Catalan)
覧覧覧 VALネNCIA: VALENCIタ (Valencian)
覧覧 OCCITタNIA: OCCITAN (or Proven軋l)
覧覧覧 GASCONHA (Gascon)
覧覧覧 LEMOSIN (in Limousin)
覧覧覧 AUVERNHA (in Auvergne)
覧覧覧 LENGADメC (in Langue d丹c)
覧覧覧 PROVENヌA: PROVENヌAU (Proven軋l)
FRANCE: FRANヌAIS (French)
覧覧 PICARDIE: PICARD
WALONREYE: WALON (Walloon)
ARPITANIA: ARPITAN (Franco-Proven軋l)
FRIロL: FURLAN (Friulian)
GRISCHUN: RUMANTSCH (Romantsch, Rhaeto-Romance)
PADANIA: PADAN (Gallo-Italian, Northern Italian)
覧覧 LOMBARDIA: LOMBARD
覧覧 PIEMONT: PIEMONTネIS (Piedmontese)
覧覧 LIGUIA: LフGURE (Ligurian)
覧覧 EMノGGLIA-RUMツGNA: EMIGLIタN-RUMAGNヤL (Emigliano-Romagnolo)
VネNETO: VネNETO (Venetian)
ITALIA: ITALIANO (Standard Italian)
覧覧 CORSICA: CORSU (Corsican)
ITALIA D酎O SUDD: NNAPULITANO (Neapolitan in Southern Italy)
覧覧 SICILIA: SICILIANU
SARDIGNA: SARDU (Sardinian)
EUSKAL HERRIA: EUSKARA (Basque)
BREIZH: BREZHONEG (Breton)
FRYSLツN: FRYSK (West Frisian)
SEELTERLOUND: SEELTERFRトISK (East Frisian)
FRASCHLヨNJ-FRIISLヨN: FRASCH-FRIISK (North Frisian)
DEUTSCHLAND-NEDERLAND: DEUTSCH-NEDERLANDS (West Germanic continuum)
LヒTZEBUERG: LヒTZEBUERGESCH (Letz, or Luxemburgish)
NEDERLAND: NEDERLANDS (Dutch)
覧覧 VLAANDEREN: VLAAMS (Flemish)
TWEANTE: TWEANTS-NEERSASSIES (Low Saxon in Twente)
NEDDERDワワTSCHLAND: NEDDERDワワTSCH (Low German)
DEUTSCHLAND: DEUTSCH (High German)
אשכנז ƆA階ENAZ: יידיש JĪDĪ (Yiddish in Europe)
MAINFRANKEN: MAINFRトNKISCH
SCHWYZ: SCHWYZERDワTSCH (Swiss German or Allemannisch)
BAIERN-ESTARREICH: BAIRISCH-ESTARREICHISCH (German in Bavaria-Austria)
NORDEN (North Germanic)
ヘSLAND-FリROYAR: ヘSLENSKA-FリROYSK (Insular Scandinavian)
覧覧 ヘSLAND: ヘSLENSKA (Icelandic)
覧覧 FリROYAR: FリROYSK (Faroese)
SKANDINAVIA: SKANDINAVISK (Scandinavian)
覧覧 DANMARK: DANSK (Danish)
覧覧 NORGE: NORSK-BOKMナL (Norwegian)
覧覧 NOREG: NYNORSK (New Norwegian)
覧覧 SVERIGE: SVENSKA (Swedish)
覧覧 SKAロNELANN: SKAロNSK (Scanian)
SチPMI: SチMIGIELLA (Lapp)
SUOMI-EESTI: SUOMI-EESTI (Baltic Finnic)
SUOMI: SUOMEN KIELI (Finnish)
覧覧 RUIJA: KVEENI
覧覧 KARJAL: KARJALAN KIELI (Karelian)
EESTI: EESTI KEEL (Estonian)
覧覧 VユROMAA-SETOMAA: VユRO-SETO KIIL
LATVIJA: LATVISKI (Latvian)
LIETUVA: LIETUVI階AI (Lithuanian)
РУСЬ: РУСКІ (North Slavic continuum)
ČESKOSLOVENSKO: ČESKOSLOVENSKン (common Czech-Slovak)
覧覧 ČESKO: ČESKン/ČE概INA (Czech)
覧覧 SLOVENSKO: SLOVENSKン/SLOVENČINA (Slovak)
ŁU鯖CA: SERBSKE (Lusatian/Sorbian/Wendish)
覧覧 HORNJA ŁU鯖CA: HORNJOSERBSKE (Upper Lusatian)
覧覧 DOLNA ŁU産CA: DOLNOSERBSKI (Lower Lusatian)
KASZヒBヒ: KASZヒBSCZI JテZヒK (Kashubian)
POLSKA: POLSKI (Polish)
РУСЬКА ЗЕМЛЕ: РУСИНЪ (Ruthenian)
УКРАЇНА: УКРАЇНСЬКИЙ (Ukrainian)
БЕЛАРУСЬ: БЕЛАРУСКІ (Belorussian)
РОССИЯ: РУССКИЙ (Russian)
MAGYARORSZチG: MAGYAR (Hungarian)
MALTA: MALTI (Maltese)
JUGOSLAVIJA: JUGOSLOVENSKI (South Slavic continuum)
SLOVENIJA: SLOVENČINA (Slovene)
CENTRALNA JUGOSLAVIJA: CENTRALNO-JU晒OSLOVENSKI/SRPSKOHRVATSKI (Serbocroatian)
覧覧 СРБИЈА: СРПСКИ (Serbian in Cyrillic)
覧覧 GORA: NA蟹NSKI (Gorani)
БЪЛГАРИЯ: БЪЛГАРСКИ (ЕЗИК) (Bulgarian)
覧覧 ВАРДАРСКА МАКЕДОНИЈА: МАКЕДОНСКИ (Macedonian)
SHQIPヒRIA: SHQIP (Albanian)
ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: ΈΛΛΗΝ/ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΆ (Greek)
ROMツNIA: ROMツNA/ROMツNEŞTE (Romanian)
*ARMツNIA: ARMツNEASHTI (Aroumanian or Vlach)
SZノKELYFヨLD: MAGYAR (Hungarian in central Romania)
КОМИ: КОМИ КЫВ (Komi)
УДМУРТ: УДМУРТ КЫЛ (Udmurt)
МАРИЙ ЭЛ: МАРИЙ (Mari)
ЧĂВАШ: ЧĂВАШ ЧĔЛХЙ (Chuvash)
МОРДОВИЯ: ЭРЗЯНЬ/МОКШОНЬ КЕЛЬ (Mordvin)
ХАЛЬМГ ТАҢЧ: *ХАЛЬМГ (Kalmyk-Oirat)
TワRKESTAN: TワRKヌE (Turkic continuum)
ГАГАУЗ-ЕРИ: ГАГАУЗИ (Gagauz)
TワRKİYE: TワRKヌE (Turkish)
AZƏRBAYCAN: AZƏRİ DİLİ (Azeri/Azerbaijani)
QARAヌAY-MALQAR: QARAヌAYヌA-*MALQARヌA (Karachay-Balkar)
TワRKMENISTAN: TワRKMENヌE (Turkmen, or Turkoman)
QIRIM: QIRIM TATARヌASI (Crimean Tatar)
БАШҠОРТОСТАН: БАШҠОРТ ТЕЛЕ (Bashkir)
TATARSTAN: TATARヌA (Tatar)
O岨BEKISTON: O岨BEKCHA (Uzbek)
ҚАЗАҚСТАН: ҚАЗАҚ (Kazak)
覧覧 QARAQALPAQSTAN: QARAQALPAQ (Kara-Kalpak)
КЫРГЫЗСТАН: КЫРГЫЗЧА (Kyrgyz)
UYĞURSTAN: UYĞURヌE (Uyghur)
САХА: САХА ТЫЛА (Yakut)
ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆ HAJASTAN: ՀԱՅԵՐԷՆ HAJERĒN (Armenian)
საქართველო SAK‛ART‛VELO: ქართული K‛ART‛ULI (Georgian)
MARGALISTAN-LAZISTAN: MARGALURI-LAZURI (Mingrelian-Laz)
ИРЫСТОН-АЛАНИЯ: ИРОН ニВЗАГ (Ossete)
ADYGE: ADYGEBZE (Circassian)
QEBERDEJ: QEBERDEJBZE (Kabardin)
*界RD殺S: ADYGEBZE (Cherkess)
АДЫГЭ: АДЫГАБЗЭ (Adyge)
АҦСНЫ-АБАЗАШТА: АҦСУА-АБАЗА
АҦСНЫ: АҦСУА (Abkhaz)
覧覧 АБЖЬЫУА (Abzhui)
覧覧 БЗЫҦ (Bzyb)
АБАЗАШТА: АБАЗА (Abazin)
NOXヌIYヌヨ-GHALGHAACHIE: NOXヌIYN-GHALGHAAJ MOTT (Chechen-Ingush)
АВАРИСТАН: АВАР МАЦІ (Avari)
ЛЕЗГИСТАН: ЛЕЗГИ ЧІАЛ (Lezgin)
ΚΎΠΡΟΣ: ΈΛΛΗΝ (Greek in Cyprus)
ܡܥܠܘܠܐ MACLŪLĀ - ܒܟܥܐ BAXCĀ - ܓܒ ܥܕܝܢ GUB CADĪN: ܐܪܡܝܬ ƆARAMĪT (Western Syriac or Neo-Aramaic)
ישראל JIŚRAƆEL: עברית CIBRĪT (Hebrew)
ܐܬܪܐ ƆATRĀ: ܐܬܪܢܝܐ ƆATRANAJĀ (Assyrian-Chaldean-Syriac)
ܛܘܪ ܥܒܕܝܢ TŪR CABDĪN: ܣܘܼܪܲܝܬ - ܛܘܪܝܐ SŪRAJT-TŪRAJĀ
العربية ƆAL-CARABĪAḦ: عربى CARABĪ (Standard Arabic)
الخليج ƆAL-XALĪĜ (Gulf Arabic)
覧覧 العراق ƆAL-CIRĀQ (Arabic in Iraq)
عمان CUMĀN (Arabic in Oman)
نجد NAĜD (Arabic in Najd)
الحجاز ƆAL-HIĜĀZ (Arabic in the Hijaz)
اليمن ƆAL-JAMAN (Arabic in Yemen)
الشام ƆAL-ĀM (Levantine Arabic)
覧覧 سوريا SŪRĪĀ (Arabic in Syria and Lebanon)
覧覧 الاردن-فلسطين ƆAL-ƆURDUN:-FILASTĪN (Arabic in Jordan and Palestine)
بدو *BADŬ (Arabic in the Red Sea/Sinai area)
مصر MASR: مصرى MASRĪ (Egyptian Arabic)
الصعيد ƆAL-SACĪD (Arabic in Upper Egypt)
السودان ƆAL-SŪDĀN (Arabic in Sudan)
المغرب ƆAL-MAĞRIB (Arabic in the Maghreb)
覧覧 ليبيا LĪBĪĀ (Arabic in Libya)
覧覧 تونس TŪNIS (Arabic in Tunisia)
覧覧 دزائر DZĀỈIR: درجة DARĜAḦ (Arabic in Algeria)
المغرب الاقصى ƆAL-MAĞRIB ƆAL-ƆAQSAJ (Arabic in Morocco)
موريتانيا MŪRĪTĀNĪĀ (Arabic in Mauritania)
تشاد عربى TĀD CARABĪ (Arabic in Chad)
ROTチN (Broad Nubian)
NメBヘヘN
TAMAZGHA: TAMAZIGHT (Berber)
KABILIE: *TAKBAILIT (Berber in Kabylia)
GARDAIA
AURES
RIF: TARIFIT
*SHLHA: TASHLHIT
AZAWAD: TAMASHEQ (Tuareg)
*NGAMBAI
GHANA-WALATA: SOONINKANXANNE (Soninke)
ISA BER – KOYRA: KOYRA KINE (Sngai, Zarma/Djerma, Dendi)
SENUFO: SENARI
CANARIAS: ESPAムOL (Spanish in the Canaries)
AFRIQUE: FRANヌAIS (French in Africa)
KABU VERDI: KRIOULO (in Cape Verde)
CABO VERDE: PORTUGUハS (in Cape Verde)
JOLOF: WOLOF
SIIN: SEREER SIIN (Serer-Sine)
FUUTA: FULFULDE (Fulani, Pulaar)
FUUTA JALON: PULAR
FUUTA TOORO: PULAAR
SEENO-HAYRE
KEムEBA
MAASINA: FULFULDE (MAASINANKOORE)
JAM但ARE
JEERI
BUNNDU
ADAMAWA
THE GAMBIA: ENGLISH
MANDEN: MANDENKAN (Malinke, Bambara, Jula, Mandinka, Mandingo)
GINE-BISAU: KRIOL (Crioulo in Guin-Bissau)
A GUINノ-BISSAU: PORTUGUハS (in Guin-Bissau)
*SUSU: SUSU-YALUNKA
TEMNE (or Themne)
MƐNDE: MƐNDE (Mende, Bandi, Loko)
LIBERIA-SIERRA LEONE: ENGLISH (including Liberian English and Krio)
KPƐLƐ: KPƐLƐWOO (Kpelle)
*BASSA
*DAN
DAGAO-DAGARATENG: DAGAARE-DAGARA (Birifor, Wali)
BURKINA: MメORノ (Mossi)
*GURMA: *GURMANCノMA
AKANAMAN: AKANA (Twi, Fante, Ashanti, Abron, Akuapem, Akyem)
DAGBOŊ: DAGBANLI (Dagomba, Frafra, Nanumba, Talni, Mamprusi)
GONJA: GONJA
NEW GHANA: ENGLISH
ANYIN-BAULE
DANHOMƐ: EƲEGBE (Fon-gbe, Ge~gbe)
TAGBA: SノNOUFO SフCフTノ (and Supyire)
TIノYAXO
Gテ-NKRAN: GA-ADANGME-KROBO
*KABIYノ
ỊJỌ
*EBIRA
KIN NUPE: EZI NUPE
*BISSA
BUSA: BUSA
BAATOMBU: BAATONUM (Bariba)
ILネ̣-YORルBチ: YORルBチ
IWERE: IṢẸKIRI
BENIN-EDO: BINI-EDO
URHOBO: URHOBO
HIDKALA: HIDKALANCI (Lamang)
GOKANA
ALA IGBO: IGBO
UYO: IKO EFIK-IBIBIO-チNタŊ
TIV: TIV
KANOWRA – KANEM-BORNU: KANURヘ
PIKKタ: BO PIKKタ (Bole)
NIGERIA: ENGLISH
KASAN HAUSAWA: HAUSA
MBENGWI: METTA
BUWAL-GAWAR: BUWAL-GAWAR
MUFULU: MAFA (Matakam)
WES COS (Cameroon Pidgin)
BAMILEKE
BATANGA: BANỌỌ-BAPỌKỌ
SテO TOMノ E PRヘNCIPE: PORTUGUハS
RヘO MUNI – FERNANDO PモO: ESPAムOL
ANGOLA: PORTUGUハS
KUNTU: KINTU (Bantu continuum)
OTCHO-ERI: BUBI
BノTI (Fang, Bulu, Ewondo, Eton)
*TEKE
MONGチLA: LINGチLA
BOMONGO: LOMONGO (Nkundo)
NSI KONGO: KIKONGO (Kongo, Kituba, Munukutuba)
LUANDA: KIMBUNDU (north Mbundu)
*BALUVALE: CHILUVALE
CHOKWE
LUNDA: CILUNDA
UKWANGALI: RUKWANGALI
BENGELA: UMBUNDU (Ovimbundu, south Mbundu)
OVAMBO: OSHIVAMBO
覧覧 UUKWANYAMA: OSHIKWANYAMA
覧覧 ONDONGA: OSHINDONGA
覧覧覧 UUKWALUUDHI
覧覧覧 ONGANDYERA
覧覧覧 UUKOLONKADHI
覧覧 UUKWAMBI
EHIROVAHERERO: OTJIHERERO (Zimba/Hemba)
DIYEYI: SHIYEYI
BULOZI: SILOZI (Lozi)
KWANGUNI: ISINGUNI
覧覧 KWAZULU: ISIZULU (Zulu)
覧覧覧 KWANDEBELE: ISINDEBELE (Ndebele)
覧覧 KWAXHOSA: ISIXHOSA (Xhosa)
覧覧 KANGWANE-SWATINI: SINGWANE-SISWATI (Swazi)
BOSOTHO: SESOTHO
覧覧 LESOTHO: SESOTHO SA BOROA (Southern)
覧覧 LEBOA: SESOTHO SA LEBOA (Northern, Pedi)
覧覧 BOTSWANA: SETSWANA (Western, Tswana)
VENḒA: TSHIVENḒA
GAZA: XITSONGA (Tsonga, Tshwa, Ronga, Changana/Shangaan)
INHAMBANE: GITONGA
ZIMBABHWE: CHISHONA (Shona, Ndau, Korekore, Zeseru, Karanga)
覧覧 MANYIKA (Manica)
UBUNYAKYUSA: EKENYAKYUSA
BEMBA: ICIBEMBA
TONGA: ICITONGA (Tonga, Lenje, Ila, Sala)
UNYIKA-ULAMBYA: NYIKA-LAMBYA (Nyiha, Ndali, Sukwa, Nyamwanga)
SENA: CHISENA (Nyungwe, Rwe, Kunda)
MALAŴI: CHINYANJA-CHICHEŴA (Nyanja, Chewa, Mang'anja)
UTUMBUKA-UTONGA: CHITUMBUKA-CHITONGA
NGONI
UMAKHUWANI: IMAKHUWANI (Makua, chiLomwe)
KUYAAWO: CIYAAWO (Yao, Merwa)
MAKONDE: CHIMチKONDE (Makonde, Machinga)
KASAマ-SHABA: TSHILUBA (Luba-Lulua, Songe)
OOBUSHIォ: AAMASHIォ (Shi)
RWANDA-BURUNDI: KINYARWANDA-KIRUNDI
覧覧 RWANDA: KINYARWANDA
覧覧 BURUNDI: KIRUNDI
覧覧 BUHA: KIHA
BUHAYA-BUZINZA-KARAGWE: OLUHAYA-ECIZINZA-RUNYAMBO (Haya, KiHaya, Ziba, Jinja, Nyambo)
BUKEREBE: EKIKEREBE
KITARA: RUNYAKITARA
覧覧 BUNYORO-TOORO: RUNYORO-RUTOORO
覧覧 NKORE-KIGEZI: RUNYANKORE-RUKIGA (Nyankore/Ankole, Chiga)
BUGANDA-BUSOGA: LUGANDA-LUSOGA
覧覧 BULUYIA-BUGISU: OLULUYIA-LUGISU (Luhya, Masaba)
覧覧覧 MARAGOOLI: ULURAGOOLI
覧覧覧 SAAMIA: LUSAAMIA
UNYAMWEZI: KINYAMWEZI
覧覧 USUKUMA: KISUKUMA
覧覧 USUMBWA: KISUMBWA
MPANDA: BENDE
UGOGO: CHIGOGO
USWAHILINI: KISWAHILI
覧覧 MASIWA: SHIMASIWA (Comoros Swahili)
覧覧覧 NGAZIDJA: SHINGAZIDJA (Grand Comore)
覧覧覧 MWALI: SHIMWALI (Moheli)
覧覧覧 NZWANI-MAORE: SHINZWANI-SHIMAORE (Anjouan-Mayotte)
覧覧 PALMA: MAKWE
ULUGURU: IKILUGURU
GUSII: EKEGUSII (Kisii)
BUKURIA: IKIKURIA
KĨRĨNYAGA (Mt. Kenya groups)
覧覧 GĨKŨYŨ: GĨGĨKŨYŨ (Kikuyu)
覧覧 MERU: KIMERU
覧覧 EMBU: KIEMBU
覧覧 UKAMBANI: KIKAMBA
UCHAGGA: KICHAGGA
TAITA-TAVETA: KITAITA-KITAVETA
覧覧 SAGALLA: KISAGALLA
NYIKA (Giryama, Chonyi, Duruma, Digo)
KAAPLAND: AFRIKAANS
SOUTH AND EAST AFRICA: ENGLISH
MOヌAMBIQUE: PORTUGUハS
Bハ-AFRホKA: SトNGヨ
GBAYA-NGBAKA-MANJA
WADAI: BURA MABANG (Maba)
ZANDノ (Nzakara)
*DARFUR: BネLE FメメR/FメメRAŊ BネLE (Fur)
JIヒNG: THUƆŊJトŊ (Dinka)
CIENG NAATH: NAATH (Nuer)
SEBEI: KUPSABINY
ACHOLI-LANGO: DHOLUO (Acholi, Lango, Luo, Kumam, Alur)
PADHOLA: DHOPADHOLA (Adhola)
KARAMOJA-TURKWEN-TESO: KARAMOJONG-KITURKANA-ATESO (Toposa, Nyangatom, Jie)
*KALENJIN: *KALENJIN
OLOSHO LE MAA: ƆL MAA (Maasai)
SAMBURU: ƆL MAA
LUO: DHOLUO (Luo, Acholi, Lango)
OROMIYAA: OROMIFFA (Oromo, Borana)
YEMSA
SIDAAMA: SIDAAMU AFO (Sidama)
WOLAYTTA: WOLAYTTA
GAMO-GOFA: GAMO-GOFA-DAWRO
KAFA: KAFICHO
SHAKA: SHAKACHO
KAMBAATA
HADIYYA
GURAGE: GUARAGIŊA
ሐበሻ HABト晦 (Ethiopic)
አማራ ƆトMARA: አማርኛ ƆトMARƏムA (Amharic)
ትግራይ TƏGƏRAJƏ: ትግርኛ TƏGƏRƏムA (Tigrinya)
ትግረ *ምድር TƏGƏRト *MƏDƏRƏ: ትግራይት TƏGƏRAJƏTƏ (Tigr)
ከረን KトRトNƏ: ብሊን BƏLINƏ (Bilin)
QAFチR: QAFチR AF (Afar)
HARAR (Harari)
SOOMAALIYA: AF SOOMAALI (Somali)
MADAGASIKARA: MALAGASY
MORIS-SESEL: MORISYEN-SESELWA (French creole in Mauritius and Seychelles)
RノNYON: RノNYONノ (Reunion creole)
KURDISTAN: KURDホ (Kurdish)
KURDISTAN BAKUR: KURMANCホ (Northern Kurdish)
KIRMANヌİYE: KIRMANヌKİ (Zazaki, Dimli, Alevi)
گيلان GĪLĀN: گيلکى GĪLƏKĪ
مازندران MĀZANDARĀN: مازِرونى MĀZƏRŪNĪ (Mazandarani)
ايران ƆĪRĀN: فارسى FĀRSĪ (or Persian)
HAZARAĜAT: HAZARAGI (Hazara)
تاجيكستان درى TĀĜĪKISTĀN DARĪ: درى DARĪ
ТОҶИКИСТОН: ТОҶИКӣ (Tajiki)
پښتونستان PAXTŪNESTĀN: پښتو PAXTO (Pashto)
وزيرستان ŬAZĪRISTĀN: وزيرى ŬAZĪRĪ
LURISTAN: LURI
بلوچستان BALŪČISTĀN: بلوچى BALŪČĪ (Baluchi)
براهوستان BRĀHŪISTĀN: براهوی BRĀHŪĪ
NURISTĀN (Nuristāni)
*K‛AM
KA蟹RŬ: Kヨ蟹RŬ (Kashmiri)
NĀ
KŌHISTĀN: KŌHISTĀNĪ
C‛ITRĀR: K‛ŌVĀR
आर्यावर्त ĀRJĀVARTA: आर्य भाषा ĀRJA B‛ĀSĀ (Indo-Aryan continuum)
मध्यदेश MAD‛JADĒŚ: मध्यदेशी MAD‛JADĒŚĪ
覧覧 भारत B‛ĀRAT: हिनदी HINDĪ (standard Hindi)
覧覧 اردوستان URDŪSTĀN: اردو URDŪ
覧覧 हरियाणा-*बांगर HARIJĀNA-BĀ~GAR: हरियाणी-बांगरू HARIJĀNĪ-BĀ~GARŪ
覧覧 ब्रज BRAJ: ब्रज भाषा BRAJ B‛ĀSĀ
覧覧 कन्नौज KANNナJ: कन्नौजी KANNナJĪ
覧覧 बुन्देलखण्ड BUNDĒLK‛AND: बुन्देली BUNDĒLĪ
राजसथान RĀJAST‛ĀN: राजसथानी RĀJAST‛ĀNĪ
覧覧 जय्पुर JAJPUR: जय्पुरी-ढूंढाड़ी JAJPURĪ-D‛Ū~D‛ĀRĪ (Jaipuri-Dhundhari)
覧覧 मारवाड़ MĀRAVĀR: मारवाड़ी MĀRAVĀRĪ (Marwari)
覧覧 माळवा MĀLAVĀ: माळवी MĀLAVĪ (Malvi)
覧覧 निमाड़ NIMĀR: निमाड़ी NIMĀRĪ
覧覧 मेवात MĒVĀT: मेवाती MĒVĀTĪ (Mewati)
覧覧 *बागड़ BĀGAR: *बागड़ी BĀGRĪ
उत्तर्देश UTTARDĒŚ: उत्तर्देशी UTTARDĒŚĪ
覧覧 अवध AVAD‛: अवधी AVAD‛Ī
覧覧 *बघेलखण्ड BAG‛ĒLK‛AND: बघेली BAG‛ĒLĪ
覧覧 छत्तीसगढ़ C‛ATTĪSGAR: छत्तीसगढ़ी C‛ATTĪSGAR‛Ī
बिहार BIHĀR: बिहारी BIHĀRĪ
覧覧 मिथिला MIT‛ILĀ: मैथिली MニT‛ILĪ
覧覧 भोजपुर B‛ŌJPUR: भोजपुरी B‛ŌJPURĪ (Sadani, Shadri, Nagpuria)
覧覧 मगह MAGAH: मगही MAGAHĪ
هندکو HINDKOŬ
*गुजारिस्तान GUJĀRISTĀN: गुजारी GUJĀRĪ
पहाड़ PAHĀR: पहाड़ी PAHĀRĪ (WEST)
覧覧 डोगरांचल DŌGRĀ~CAL: डोगरी DŌGRĪ
उत्तर्खण्ड UTTARK‛AND: कुमायूनी-गढ़वाली KUMĀJŪNĪ-GAR‛VĀLĪ (Central Pahārī)
覧覧 कुमाऊँ KUMĀŪ~: कुमायूनी KUMĀJŪNĪ (Kumaoni)
覧覧 गढ़वाल GAR‛VĀL: गढ़वाली GAR‛VĀLĪ (Garhwali)
नेपाल NĒPĀL: नेपाली NĒPĀLĪ (Eastern Pahārī)
ਪੰਜਾਬ PテJĀB: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ PテJĀBĪ (Punjabi)
پنجاب PANĜĀB LAHNDĀ: LAHNDĀ (Western Punjabi)
سراييكستان SIRĀJĪKISTĀN: سراييكى SIRĀJĪKĪ
سنڌ SIND‛: سنڌي SIND‛Ī
覧覧 VICŌLŌ: VICŌLĪ
覧覧 *لاڙو LĀRŪ: لاڙى LĀRĪ
覧覧 LASA B‛ELO: LASĪ
覧覧 T‛ARU: T‛ARĪ
覧覧 कच्छ KACC‛: कच्छी KACC‛Ī
ગુજરાત GUJARĀT: ગુજરાતી GUJARĀTĪ
*वागड़-भीलिसतान VĀGAR-B‛ĪLISTAN: *वागड़ी-भीली VĀGARĪ-B‛ĪLĪ
खानदेश K‛ĀNDĒŚ: खानदेशी K‛ĀNDĒŚĪ
मराठा-महाराषटर MARĀT‛Ā-MAHĀRĀSTRA: मराठी MARĀT‛Ī
कोंकण KŌ~KAN: कोंकणी KŌ~KANĪ
डेक्कन DĒKKAN: डेक्कनी DĒKKANĪ (Deccan)
ଓଡ଼ିଶା ORIŚĀ: ଓଡ଼ିଆ OR
বাংলাদেশ BĀ~LĀDĒŚ: বাংলা BĀ~LĀ (Bengali)
覧覧 সিলেট SILĒT: সিলেটী SILĒTĪ (Sylhetti)
覧覧 চট্টগ্রাম CATTAGRĀM: চাটগাঁইয়া CĀTAGĀ~JĀ (Chittagonian)
অসম ASAM: অসমিয়া ASAMIJĀ (Assamese)
覧覧 NAGALIM: NAGA (Naga-Assamese)
नेवा: NĒVĀ: नेवा: भाय् NĒVĀ B‛ĀJ (Newari)
GORMATĪ (Lambadi)
INDIA: ENGLISH
ދިވެހި ރާއްޖެ DIVEHI RĀƆJE: ދިވެހި DIVEHI (Maldivian and Mahl)
ශ්‍රී ලංකා ŚRĪ LテKĀ: සිංහල SĨHALA (Sinhalese)
द्राविड़ DRĀVIRA (Dravidian South India)
ತುಳುನಾಡು TULU-NĀDU: ತುಳು TULU
ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ KARNĀTAKA: ಕನನಡ KANNADA
ಕೊಡಗು KODAGU: ಕೊಡವ ತಕ್‌ KODAVA TAK (Coorg)
കേരളം KĒRAL: മലയാളം MALAJĀLテ (Malayalam)
தமிழ் நாடு TAMIZTU: தமிழ் TAMIZ (Tamil)
ఆంధరదేశము Ā~D‛RADĒŚAMU: తెలుగు TELUGU
覧覧 ఆంధర Ā~D‛RA
覧覧 తెలంగాన TELテGĀNA
覧覧 రాయలసీమ RĀJALASĪMA
गोंडवाना GユDVĀNĀ: गोंड GユD (Gond)
KURUX: KURUX KAT‛Ā (Kurukh/Oraon)
*K‛ĒRVĀRISTĀN: K‛ĒRVĀRĪ (Kherwari, S縟‛ālī, Mundari, Ho)
བོད་ BOD (Tibetan)
བོད་ BOD: བོད་སྐད་ BOD SKAD (Tibetan continuum)
覧覧 མང་ཡུལ་ MAŊ JUL (Western Tibetan)
覧覧覧 بلتيول BALTĪŪL: بلتي BALTĪ
覧覧覧 ལ་དྭགས་ LA DŬAGS: ལ་དྭགས་སྐད་ LA DŬAGS SKAD (Ladākhī)
覧覧 དབུས་གཙང་ DBUS GS (ワ-Tsang)
覧覧 ཁམས་ K‛AMS
覧覧 ཨ༌མདོ་ A MDO
覧覧 འབྲས་ལྗོངས་ ƆBRAS LJOŊS: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་སྐད་ ƆBRAS LJOŊS SKAD (Sikkimese, Da-Njong-Ka)
覧覧 འབྲུག་ ƆBRUG: རྫོང་ཁ་ RZOŊ K‛A (Dzongkha, or Bhutanese)
RモŊ: RモŊ RヘŊ (Lepcha)
K‛EŊ - བུམ་ཐང་ BUM T‛AŊ: K‛EŊ SKAD - བུམ་ཐང་སྐད་ BUM T‛AŊ SKAD (Kheng-Bumthang)
覧覧 MAŊDI: MAŊDIKト (Mangdikha)
覧覧 KURTO: KURTOKト
ཕྱ་ལི་ P‛JA LI: P‛JA LI Kト (Chali, Tsalingpa)
बोड़ो BŌRŌ (Bodo)
MĀNDĒ: MĀNDĒ KUSIK (Garo)
RI KHASI: KHASI
MEITHEI LEIPĀK: MEITHEI (Manipuri)
MIZORAM: MIZO
АЛТАЙ: АЛТАЙ (Altay)
ТЫВА: ТЫВА (Tuvan)
ЕВЕДЫ: ЕВЕДЫ *ТУРヒН (Evenki)
*ЧАВЧВАЕЙЫЛ (Koryak)
ЧАВЧЫВ (Chukchi)
МОНГОЛ УЛС: МОНГОЛ (Mongolian)
БУРЯАД: БУРЯАД XЭЛЭH (Buryat)
中國 ヌUŊ5 KUO35: 中文 ヌUŊ5 UƏN35 (Chinese continuum and common literary space)
漢國 XAN51 KUO35: 漢語 XAN51214 (Mandarin)
覧覧 晉 ĆIN51: 晉語 ĆIN51214
HU2: 吳語 HU2 ムワ4 (W, Shanghainese)
贛 KヨN: 贛語 KヨN Nワ (G瀟, Jiang Xi)
: 湘語 (Xiāng or Hunanese)
閩北 MIŊ53 PAヨK213: 閩北語 MIŊ53 PAヨK213 Ŋワ3 (Northern Min)
閩南 BAN35 LAM35: 閩南話 BAN35 LAM35 UA3 (Southern Min, Taiwanese, Hoklo)
客家國 HAK1 KA4 KET1: 客家話 HAK1 KA4 VA1 (Hakka)
兩廣 LヨŊ3 KUOŊ35: 廣話 KUOŊ3535 (Cantonese)
고려 KO LJE: 고려어 KO LJE E (Korean)
日本 NItu-PON: 日本語 NI-HON-GO (Japanese)
NASU (Lolo, Yi)
NAQXI (Naxi, Moso)
MACAU: MACAヘSTA (Macao creole)
CUENGH GOZ: SAW CUENGH (Zhuang)
BUXQYAIX (Bouyei)
เมืองไทย MIĀŊ-DニJ: ภาษาไทย B‛ĀSĀDニJ (Thai)
อีสาน ĪSĀN – ລາວ LĀŬ
覧覧 อีสาน ĪSĀN : ภาษาอีสาน B‛ĀSĀĪSĀN (Isan)
覧覧 ລາວ LĀŬ: ພາສາລາວ B‛ĀSĀLĀŬ (Laotian)
MOŊ DTAI – HSIP1 HSONG1 PAN4 NA4
覧覧 MOŊ DTAI: DTAI (Shan)
覧覧 HSIP1 HSONG1 PAN4 NA4: DAI (L, Baiyi, Khn, Lanna Thai)
KAM55 (Dong)
JINGPHO (Kachin)
*CHIN
KAWTHOOLEI: KARAŊ (Karen)
ကယား KAJĀ:: KAJĀ:LI (Karenni)
ဗမာ-မြန်မာ BAMĀ-MRANMĀ: ဗမာစာ-မြန်မာစာ BAMĀCĀ-MRANMĀCĀ (Burmese)
*YANGBYE
IU MIEN (Y痂)
HMOOB TEB CHAWS: LUS HMOOB (Hmong or Mi痂)
MOOB LEEG TEB: LUG MOOB LEEG (or NTSUAB) (Blue/Green Hmong)
覧覧 HMOOB DAWB TEB: LUS HMOOB DAWB (White Hmong)
覧覧 HMOOB TXAIJ TEB: LUS HMOOB TXAIJ (Striped Hmong)
覧覧 HMOOB *QUA MBAAB TEB: LUS HMOOB *QUA MBAAB (Banded-Sleeve Hmong)
覧覧 HMOOB PEG TEB: LUS HMOOB PEG
HMOOB SIB TEB: LUS HMOOB SIB
HMOOB XAUV TEB: LUS HMOOB XAUV
HMOOB DUB TEB: LUS HMOOB DUB (Black Hmong)
မန် MAN: ဘာသာ မန် B‛ĀSĀMAN (Mon)
កម្ពុជា KAMBUJA: ភាសាខ្មែរ B‛ĀSĀK‛MER (Khmer, or Cambodian)
VIỆT NAM: TIẾNG VIỆT (Vietnamese)
ACHEH: BASA ACHEH (Achinese)
BATAK: *BATAK
KLUET: BATAK ALAS-KLUET
TOBA: TOBA BATAK
TANAH MELAYU: BAHASA MELAYU (Malay)
ALAM MINANGKABAU: BAHASO MINANG (Minangkabau)
NIAS: NIAS
LAMPUNG: LAMPUNG
*REJANG
新加坡 ŚIN1 KA5 P‛O5: 閩南語 BAN35 LAM35 GU53 (Southern Min in Singapore)
新加坡 ŚIN5 ĆIA5 P‛UO5: 漢語 XAN51214 (Mandarin in Singapore)
சிங்கப்பூர் CIŊKAPPŪR: தமிழ் TAMIZ (Tamil in Singapore)
*NJO
*ABUNG
SUNDA: BASA SUNDA (Sundanese)
JAKARTA BETAVI: BETAVI
JAWA: BASA JAWA (Javanese)
MADURA: BASA MADURA (Madurese)
BALI: BASA BALI (Balinese)
LOMBOK: SASAK
SUMBAWA: SUMBAWA
ROTE WEST: WESTERN ROTE
ROTE: ROTE
TIMOR LORO SAE: TETUN (Tetum)
DJUMPANDANG (Macassarese)
WUGI: BASA WUGI (Buginese)
BANJAR: BANJAR MELAU
SARAWAK: IBAN
PILIPINAS: PILIPINO-TAGALOG
KAILOKUAN: ILOKO (Ilocano)
*PANGANSINAN
PAMPANGA: KAPAMPANGAN
BIKOL: BIKOLON (Bicolano)
IFUGAW
BISAYA: BISAYA (Visayan continuum)
SUGBO: SUGBUHANON (Cebuano)
SAMAR-LEYTE: WINARAY (or Binisayaq or W疵ay-W疵ay)
ILOILO-NEGROS OCCIDENTAL: ILモNGGO-HILIGAYNON
MASBATE: MASBATENYO
CAPIZ: CAPIZNON (Capizeo)
AKLAN: AKLANON (and Malaynon)
ANTIQUE: KINARAY-A
KUYO: KUYONON (Cuyo)
SURIGAW: SURIGAWNON
BUTUAN: BUTUANON
LUPAH SUG: BAHASA SUG (Tausug or Sulu)
DANAW: DANAWON
MAGINDANAW: MAGINDAWON
LANAW: ILANUN
MARANAW: MARANAWON
DABAW: DABAWENYO (Kalagan, Mansaka)
*ZAMBOANGA: *SUBANON
BASILAN: YAKAN
*HOKLO
PAPUA
MOTU (and Hiri Motu)
SAOT PASIFIK AILANS (English Creole in the South Pacific)
NIU GINI: TOK PISIN (English Creole in New Guinea)
SOLOMON AILANS: PIJIN (English Creole in Solomon Islands)
VANUATU: BISLAMA
AUSTRALIA – NEW ZEALAND – PACIFIC: ENGLISH
*CHUAVE
*ENGA
ASUMBOA
ANUTA
KWARA但E
SAVO: SAVOSAVO
MONO-ALO-FAURO: MONO
ISLAS MARIANAS: CHAMORU (Chamorro)
BELAU: TEKOI ER A BELAU
WA但P (Yapese)
CHUUK (Trukese)
KOSRAE
POHNPEI
MAJヨL: KAJIN MAJヨL (Marshallese)
RĀLIK (western Marshallese)
RATAK (eastern Marshallese)
KIRIBATI: I-KIRIBATI (Gilbertese)
NAOERO (Nauruan)
*EBON
MALO: *MALO
EFATE NORTH (North Efate)
EFATE SOUTH (South Efate)
AMBAE EAST (East Ambae)
AMBAE WEST (West Ambae)
*ERROMANGA: SIE
KURRI: TINRIN
KANAKY: KANAK (Melanesian in New Caledonia)
FIJI: FIJI-HINDI
VITI: VOSA VAKAVITI (Fijian)
SAWAIKI (Polynesian)
AOTEAROA: TE REO MĀORI (Maori)
TONGAエ: FAKA-TONGAエ (Tongan)
TUVALU-TOKELAU: エGANA TUVALU-TOKELAU
SĀMOA: GAGANA SĀMOA
SIKAYANA (Sikaiana)
繕VEA: FAKA繕VEA (Uvean, Wallisian)
FUTUNA: FAKAFUTUNA (Futunan)
KAPINGAMARANGI
MELE-FILA: *MELE-FILA
NUKUORO
NIUE: LILIU FAKA-NIUE
HAWAI選: ŌLELO HAWAI選 (Hawaiian)
TAHITI: TAHITIREOAREO (Tahitian)
RAPA NUI (Easter Island)
OCノANIE: FRANヌAIS (French in Oceania)

 

 

ZONES FOR OBSOLETE DIALECTS

SQŬAJチILAQTM (Upper Chehalis)
KARレK VEEZヘVZAANEEN: KARレK VAHI
WENDAKE: WテDAT (Wyandot-Huron)
LENAPEHOKING: LヒNAPEI LIXSUWAKタN (Delaware)
MJAAMIONKI (Miami-Illinois)
TSENAKOMAKAH (Powhatan)
MチNU: YĮ ĮSUWĄ: ĮSUWĄ (Catawba)
KERNOW: KERNEWEK (Cornish)
MANNIN: GAELG (Manx)
PRŪSA: PRŪSISKAN (Old Prussian)
SロDAVツ: SロDAVIUN BILツ (Sudovian)
MEK‛L RASNAL (Etruscan)
ΚΗΜЄ: ΤΜΝΤ ΡΜΝΚΗΜЄ (Coptic)
XATTI: NE蟹LI (Hittite)
LUŬIJA: LUŬILI (Luvian)
TRM̃MIS: TRM̃MILI (Lycian)
ארם ƆARAM: ארמית ƆARAMĪT (Aramaic)
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ MANU : ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ MANU (Manchu)
MOSIR (Ainu)

 

DIFFUSE DIALECTS

ANGLOSPHERE: ENGLISH
RROMANESTAN: RROMANネS (Gypsy)
יידיש JĪDĪŚ (Yiddish)
FRANCOPHONIE: FRANヌAIS (French)
LUSOFONIA: PORTUGUハS (Portuguese)
廣話 KUOŊ3535 (Cantonese)
漢語 XAN51214 (Mandarin Chinese)
PLAUTDIETSCHLAUNT: PLAUTDIETSCH (Mennonite Low German)
ESPERANTO/LINGVO INTERNACIA

   

ゥ O.T. FORD

THE STEWARDSHIP
Home of the Stewardship Project
and O.T. Ford