УКРАЇНА « UKRANA »
Also: Украина « Ukraina ».
English: Ukraine.
Seat of government: Киев « Kiev » / Київ « Kiv ».
Status: Democratic.
Structure: Parliament (Верховна Рада « Verxovna Rada ») is elected through geographical constituencies and party-list proportional representation, and must approve the ministers; the president is the head of government, elected directly.
Governing parties: Блок Петра Порошенка « Blok Petra Porošenka »; Народний Фронт « Narodniĭ Front ».
Heads of government: Петро Порошенко « Petro Porošenko », president (since 2014); Володимир Гройсман « Volodimir Groĭsman », prime minister (since 2016).
Other parliamentary parties: Самопоміч « Samopomíč »; Опозиційний Блок « Opozicíĭniĭ Blok »; Радикальна Партія « Radikalĵna Partíja »; Батьківщина « Batĵkívŝina »; Всеукраїнське Об’єднання – Свобода « Vseukransĵke Ob’édnannja – Svoboda »; Сильна Україна « Silĵna Ukrana »; Заступ « Zastup »; Правий Сектор « Praviĭ Sektor »; Воля « Volja ».
Assessment: Largely polarized between a west and north oriented towards Western Europe and speaking Українська « Ukransĵka », and an east and south oriented towards Россия « Rossija » and speaking Русский « Russkiĭ ». President Леонид Кучма « Leonid Kučma » (1994-2005) met with opposition to his autocracy, in part for a scandal involving the murder of journalist Георгій Ґонґадзе « Georgíĭ Ġonġadze ». An election drama in 2004 including the obvious fixing of a presidential vote by the outgoing Кучма « Kučma » and prime minister Виктор Янукович « Viktor Janukovič » (both easterners) in favor of Янукович « Janukovič » ended with the inauguration of opposition leader Віктор Ющенко « Víktor Juŝenko » as president (known as the Помаранчева Революція « Pomarančeva Revoljuja »). But parliament became the most powerful element of state under reforms passed that year, and elections for a new parliament were similarly divisive. The coalition that elected Ющенко « Juŝenko » split over personality and the division of power, particularly between Ющенко « Juŝenko » and prime minister Юлія Тимошенко « Juja Timošenko » (2005, 2007-10), and Янукович « Janukovič », whose Партия Регионов « Partija Regionov » won a plurality in general elections in 2006, 2007, and 2012, again became prime minister in 2006. After disputes with Ющенко « Juŝenko » over constitutional issues, snap polls were agreed; the reunited coalition of the Помаранчева Революція « Pomarančeva Revoljuja » (chiefly Блок Юлії Тимошенко « Blok Ju Timošenko » and Блок Наша Україна – Народна Самооборона « Blok Naša Ukrana – Narodna Samooborona ») made Тимошенко « Timošenko » prime minister. A 2010 presidential election ended with a runoff between Янукович « Janukovič » and Тимошенко « Timošenko », which Янукович « Janukovič » won; Тимошенко « Timošenko » was then replaced with Янукович « Janukovič » ally Николай (Микола) Азаров « Nikolaĭ (Mikola) Azarov » (2010-4). Also in 2010, the constitutional court disallowed the redistribution of power to parliament, giving the presidency again the control of the government. Партия Регионов « Partija Regionov » won another plurality in the 2012 parliamentary election. In 2014, Янукович « Janukovič » shifted policy away from an EU orientation towards Россия « Rossija », prompting protests; when he used force on those small protests, much larger protests (Євромайдан « Évromaĭdan ») eventually drove him from office, replaced by pro-Western politicians, with Порошенко « Porošenko » as president and Арсеній Яценюк (2014-6) as prime minister. This prompted rebellion among Русский « Russkiĭ »-speakers, intervention by Россия « Rossija » itself in Крым « Krym » (now formally annexed) and the Донбасс « Donbass » (now effectively independent), and new elections in which Western-oriented politicians dominated.
FH: 3-2, free. Econ: 6.94 (53), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2018 January 7.
 

O.T. FORD