TANZANIA
Officially: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania; United Republic of Tanzania.
Seats of government: Dodoma; Dar es Salaam.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: One-party state. In theory, the president is elected directly, while the parliament (National Assembly) is elected in geographical constituencies, with seats allocated for women, and Zanzibar is semi-autonomous.
Governing party: Chama cha Mapinduzi.
Head of government: Jakaya Kikwete, president.
Chief opposition party: Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo; Chama cha Wananchi, led by Ibrahim Lipumba.
Recent history: The mainland, Tanganyika, became independent in 1961, with the Tanganyika African National Union as the main political force and Julius Nyerere (1960-85) as prime minister, later (1962) president. A revolution in Zanzibar in 1964 by the Afro-Shirazi Party led to independence and then merger with Tanganyika. TANU and the ASP remained the dominant parties in their respective entities until merged in 1977 as the CCM. There has never yet been another governing party. Nyerere famously implemented ujamaa starting in the 1960s, roughly following the model of 毛澤東 Mau3535 Tuŋ5 , with similar (though less severe) methods and consequences. His successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi (1985-95) of Zanzibar, began the rollback of ujamaa. Benjamin Mkapa (1995-2005) and Kikwete (2005-) followed. Throughout, the CCM and its predecessors have subverted democracy, especially on Zanzibar; opposition rallies have been banned, its activists (including Lipumba) have been arrested and beaten, and the electoral process has been skewed. The CCW is a merger of the mainland Civic Movement and the Kamahuru of Zanzibar, where it is the strongest. ChaDeMa surpassed the CCW as the largest opposition party in the 2010 elections.
FH: 4-3, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 5.28 (96), hybrid.
Updated: 2015 March 7.
 

O.T. FORD