臺灣 TAI35 UAN35
Also: 台灣 / 台湾 Tai35 Uan35 / T‛ai35 Uan5 .
Officially: 中華民國 / 中华民国 Tioŋ1 Hua35 Bin35 Kok1 / uŋ5 Xua35 Min35 Kuo35 .
English: Taiwan.
Seat of government: 臺北 / 台北 Tai35 Pak1 .
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. The rest of the government comprises five 院 ĩ3 : the 行政院 Heŋ35 Ceŋ21 Ĩ3 (Executive), 立法院 Lip1 Huat1 Ĩ3 (Legislative), 司法院 Su4 Huat32 Ĩ3 (Judicial), 考試院 K‛ə41 C‛i1 Ĩ3 (Examination, or civil service testing), and 監察院 Kam1 C‛at32 Ĩ3 (Control, or auditing). The legislature is elected in geographical constituencies modified by party-list proportional representation, with some reserved aboriginal seats. The executive is appointed by the president; the prime minister is officially the president of the 行政院 Heŋ35 Ceŋ21 Ĩ3 .
Governing party: 國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 .
Heads of government: 馬英九 Ma2145 Ćiou214 , president; 毛治國 Mau35 r51 Kuo35 , prime minister.
Chief opposition party: 民主進步黨 Bin35 Cu53 Ćin21 P3 Toŋ53 .
Recent history: Government in recent years has been strongly contested, with alternate elections being won by the pro-independence 泛綠軍 Huan21 Leɔk5 Kun1 (民主進步黨 Bin35 Cu53 Ćin21 P3 Toŋ53 and 台灣團結聯盟 Tai35 Uan35 T‛uan35 Kiat1 Lian35 Beŋ35 ) and the conservative, pro-unification 泛藍軍 Fan51 Lan35 Ćn5 (國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 and 親民黨 Ć‛in5 Min35 Taŋ214 ). The 2000 presidential election of 陳水扁 Tan35 Cui5353 (2000-8) of the 民進黨 Bin35 Ćin21 Toŋ53 defied both 中國 uŋ5 Kuo35 and the long-ruling 國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 . The 民進黨 Bin35 Ćin21 Toŋ53 won a plurality in the 2001 legislative elections, but the 泛藍軍 Fan51 Lan35 Ćn5 still had a combined majority. 陳 Tan35, who wavered from his prior stance for independence but then returned to it, was reelected by a small (and disputed) margin in 2004; to defuse a corruption scandal, he eventually delegated much of his power to prime ministers 蘇貞昌 S5 Teŋ1 Ć‛ioŋ1 (2006-7) and 張俊雄 Tiũ5 Cun21 Hioŋ35 (2007-8), also of the 民進黨 Bin35 Ćin21 Toŋ53 . The 泛藍軍 Fan51 Lan35 Ćn5 maintained control of the parliament in 2004. While the 泛綠軍 Huan21 Leɔk5 Kun1 fared better in a 2005 election for a special constitutional assembly (held using a party-list proportional representation system), that body led to temporary alliances across coalition lines in favor of reforms to the parliamentary system to force the smaller parties out; accordingly, the 國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 won 81 of 113 seats in the 2008 legislative elections, with the 民進黨 Bin35 Ćin21 Toŋ53 taking 27. 馬 Ma214 of the 國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 then won a convincing victory in the 2008 presidential election. He was reelected with a small majority in 2012, and the 國民黨 Kuo35 Min35 Taŋ214 won a decreased majority in the legislature during the same election.
FH: 2-1, free. Econ: 7.82 (33), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2015 March 25.
 

O.T. FORD