السودان « ƆAL-SŪDĀN » (NORTH)
Officially: الجمهورية السودان « ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ ɔal-Sūdān ».
English: (Northern) Sudan.
Seat of government: الخرطوم « ɔal-Xartūm ».
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Dominant-party state.
Governing party: المؤتمر الوطني‎ « ɔal-Mủtamar ɔal-Ŭatanī ».
Head of government: عمر حسن البشير « Cumar Hasan ɔal-Bašīr », president.
Chief opposition party: قوى الاجماع الوطني « Qūaj ɔal-Ɔiĝmāc ɔal-Ŭatanī » (including المؤتمر الشعبي « ɔal-Mủtamar al-Šacbī », led by حسن الترابى « Hasan ɔal-Turābī »).
Assessment: Fundamentalist state with imperialist ambitions towards various African, animist, and Christian populations, only partially abandoned. It reached a final peace agreement with South Sudan (long effectively independent) in 2005, and recognized its independence in 2011. The الجبهة الإسلامية القومية « ɔal-Ĝabhaḧ ɔal-Ɔislāmīaḧ ɔal-Qaŭmīaḧ », led by الترابى « ɔal-Turābī », came to power by coup in 1989, as المؤتمر الوطني‎ « ɔal-Mủtamar ɔal-Ŭatanī »; البشير « ɔal-Bašīr » was installed as official head of government, but الترابى « ɔal-Turābī » was the ruler de facto. Gradually البشير « ɔal-Bašīr » accrued more power, ousted الترابى « ɔal-Turābī » from his official positions in 1999, and in 2000 had him imprisoned; he was released in 2003, imprisoned again in 2004, and released in 2005. Following the peace deal with South Sudan, an administration of national unity was ostensibly formed, including the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, with Garaŋ John and then Salva Kiir, representing the SPLM, serving as nominal vice president, and including the northern civilian opposition, التحالف الوطنى الديموقراطى « ɔal-Tahāluf ɔal-Ŭatanī ɔal-Dīmūqrātī »; but the true power remained with المؤتمر « ɔal-Mủtamar », and the SPLM withdrew in 2007. In 2009, the International Criminal Court charged البشير « ɔal-Bašīr » with genocide and other crimes against humanity for organizing attacks in دار فور‎ « Dār Fūr ». Owing to border disputes, some southern land not included in South Sudan is now under the control of the حركة الشعبية لتحرير السودان – الشمال « Harakaḧ ɔal-Šacbīaḧ li-Tahrīr ɔal-Sūdān – ɔal-Šamāl »; it and the main rebel groups in دار فور‎ « Dār Fūr » have formed the الجبهة الثورية السودان « ɔal-Ĝabhaḧ ɔal-Ţaŭrīaḧ ɔal-Sūdān » to contest power, and much of دار فور‎ « Dār Fūr » is out of الخرطوم « ɔal-Xartūm »’s control. A third insurgency exists in the east.
FH: 7-7, not free. Econ: 2.38 (154), authoritarian.
Updated: 2014 December 4.
 

O.T. FORD