ලංකාව LKĀVA
Also: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Lkā ; இலங்கை Ilaŋk .
Officially: ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය Śrī Lkā Prajātāntrīka Samājavādī Janarajaja ; இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோஷலிசக் குடியரசு Ilaŋk Jaňanājaka Cōśalicak Kutijaracu .
English: Sri Lanka.
Seat of government: කොළඹ Kolamba .
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. Parliament (පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Pārlimēntuva ) is elected in geographical constituencies modified by party-list proportional representation. Since 1978, the president has typically headed the government and appointed all ministers, but parliament has been ascendant at times as well, choosing the ministers and running domestic affairs.
Chief governing party: එක්සත් ජාතික පෙරමුණ Eksat Jātika Peramuna (chiefly එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය Eksat Jātika Paksaja ).
Heads of government: මෛත්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන Mtrīpāla Sirisēna , president; රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ Ranil Vikramasĩha , prime minister.
Chief opposition party: එක්සත් ජනතා නිදහස් සන්ධානය Eksat Janatā Nidahas Sand‛ānaja (chiefly ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය Śrī Lkā Nidahas Paksaja ).
Assessment: Historically illiberal and dismissive of minority rights, and recently successful in its war to maintain control over the தமிழ் Tamiz minority. Presidents චන්ද්‍රිකා කුමාරතුංග Candrikā Kumāratũga (1994-2005) and මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ Mahinda Rājapaksa (2005-15) practiced chauvinist politics and appointed close relatives to high offices. කුමාරතුංග Kumāratũga seized several ministries in 2003 and then dissolved parliament to thwart autonomy for ஈழம் Īzam , which the එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය Eksat Jātika Paksaja , effectively governing since a parliamentary win in 2001, was willing to grant. The සන්ධානය Sand‛ānaja became the largest party in parliament in 2004, and began governing in a minority coalition with parties even more nationalist and intransigent. But the defection of tens of opposition members gave the government a majority, while damaging interfactional relations. An offensive (2006-9) against ஈழம் Īzam brought all of the island under a single government for the first time in decades. Capitalizing on this, රාජපක්ෂ Rājapaksa called an early election in 2010 and won; he then extended his new term by a year, arrested his main opponent (former military commander සරත් ෆොන්සේකා Sarat Fonsēkā ), and dissolved parliament for snap elections. Those elections, also held in 2010, were won easily by the සන්ධානය Sand‛ānaja . රාජපක්ෂ Rājapaksa called another early presidential election for 2015, but lost to සිරිසේන Sirisēna , standing for a united opposition and promising a parliamentary system.
FH: 4-4, partly free (democratic). Econ: 6.61 (57), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2015 March 23.

ஈழம் Īzam
Also: தமிழ் ஈழம் Tamiz Īzam .
English: Tamil Eelam.
Seat of government: கிளிநொச்சி Kilinocci .
Status: Defunct; not democratic.
Structure: Military state.
Governing party:
தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள் Tamizīza Vitutalp Pulikal .
Head of government: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன் Vēluppill Pirapākaraň .
Recent history: The ruling party, a brutal and undemocratic force but representative of a genuine grievance, pledged in negotiations with ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Lkā to operate more as a political force, and to practice pluralism in the areas they controlled. They also announced a willingness to accept autonomy rather than full independence, and presented a plan for autonomy. Their தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு Tamizt Tēcijak Kūttamppu placed third in island-wide parliamentary voting in 2004, but the subsequent government of ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Lkā was less open to negotiation, and engaged in an effective military offensive. It captured கிளிநொச்சி Kilinocci , and eventually all of the unrecognized states territory, and killed பிரபாகரன் Pirapākaraň .
Updated: 2009 May 22.
 

O.T. FORD