ලංකාව « LÃKĀVA »
— Also: ශ්රී ලංකා « Śrī Lãkā »; இலங்கை « Ilaŋkæ ».
— Officially: ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය « Śrī Lãkā Pra
jātāntrīka Samā javādī Janara jaja »; இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோஷலிசக் குடியரசு « Ilaŋkæ Jaňanājaka Cōśalicak Kut̩ijaracu ».
— English: Sri Lanka.
— Seat of government: කොළඹ « Kol̩amba ».
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: The president is elected directly. Parliament (පාර්ලිමේන්තුව « Pārlimēntuva ») is elected in geographical constituencies modified by party-list proportional representation. Since 1978, the president has typically headed the government and appointed all ministers, but parliament has been ascendant at times as well, choosing the ministers and running domestic affairs.
— Head of government: රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ « Ranil Vikramasĩha », president (since 2022).
— Assessment: Historically illiberal and dismissive of minority rights, and recently successful in its war to maintain control over the தமிழ் « Tamiz » minority. Presidents චන්ද්රිකා කුමාරතුංග « Candrikā Kumāratũga » (1994-2005) and මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ « Mahinda Rā
japaks̩a » (2005-15) practiced chauvinist politics and appointed close relatives to high offices. කුමාරතුංග « Kumāratũga » seized several ministries in 2003 and then dissolved parliament to thwart autonomy for ஈழம் « Īzam », which the එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය « Eksat Jātika Paks̩aja », effectively governing since a parliamentary win in 2001, under prime minister රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ « Ranil Vikramasĩha » (1993-4, 2001-4, 2015-9, 2022-), was willing to grant. The එක්සත් ජනතා නිදහස් සන්ධානය « Eksat Janatā Nidahas Sand‛ānaja » (chiefly ශ්රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය « Śrī Lãkā Nidahas Paks̩aja ») became the largest party in parliament in 2004, and began governing in a minority coalition with parties even more nationalist and intransigent. But the defection of tens of opposition members gave the government a majority, while damaging interfactional relations. An offensive (2006-9) against ஈழம் « Īzam » brought all of the island under a single government for the first time in decades. Capitalizing on this, රාජපක්ෂ « Rā japaks̩a » called an early election in 2010 and won; he then extended his new term by a year, arrested his main opponent (former military commander සරත් ෆොන්සේකා « Sarat Fonsēkā »), and dissolved parliament for snap elections. Those elections, also held in 2010, were won easily by the සන්ධානය « Sand‛ānaja ». රාජපක්ෂ « Rā japaks̩a » called another early presidential election for 2015, but lost to මෛත්රීපාල සිරිසේන « Mætrīpāla Sirisēna » (2015-9), standing for a united opposition and promising a parliamentary system. He appointed වික්රමසිංහ « Vikramasĩha » as prime minister; the latter’s party then won a plurality in parliamentary elections. In 2018, සිරිසේන « Sirisēna » tried to dismiss වික්රමසිංහ « Vikramasĩha » and replace him with රාජපක්ෂ « Rā japaks̩a », but වික්රමසිංහ « Vikramasĩha » challenged this and the parliament rejected රාජපක්ෂ « Rā japaks̩a ». A 2019 election for president saw ගෝඨාභය රාජපක්ෂ « Gōt̩‛āb‛aja Rā japaks̩a » (2019-22), brother of මහින්ද « Mahinda » and de facto defense minister during the reconquest, defeat සජිත් ප්රේමදාස « Sa jit Prēmadāsa ». ගෝඨාභය « Gōt̩‛āb‛aja » appointed මහින්ද « Mahinda » as prime minister (2004-5, 2019-22), but worked to reconcentrate power in the presidency. The එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය « Eksat Jātika Paks̩aja » joined an opposition coalition ahead of the 2020 parliamentary elections, but pulled out shortly before; the coalition, සමගි ජනබලවේගය « Samagi Jana-balavēgaja », won nearly all of the opposition seats, while the pro-රාජපක්ෂ « Rā japaks̩a » vote migrated to the ශ්රී ලංකා පොදුජන පෙරමුණ « Śrī Lãkā Podu jana Peramun̩a », which won a large plurality (thus leaving the two traditional major parties simultaneously obliterated). Protests in 2022, mostly over economics, led first to the resignation of මහින්ද « Mahinda », who was replaced by වික්රමසිංහ « Vikramasĩha », and then, a few months later, to the flight and resignation of ගෝඨාභය « Gōt̩‛āb‛aja »; වික්රමසිංහ « Vikramasĩha » was then chosen by parliament to replace him as well.
— FH: 4-4, partly free (democratic). Econ: 6.61 (57), flawed democracy.
— Updated: 2022 July 20.
ஈழம் « Īzam »
— Also: தமிழ் ஈழம் « Tamiz Īzam ».
— English: Tamil Eelam.
— Seat of government: கிளிநொச்சி « Kil̩inocci ».
— Status: Defunct; not democratic.
— Structure: Military state.
— Governing party: தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள் « Tamizīza Vit̩utalæp Pulikal̩ ».
— Head of government: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன் « Vēluppil̩l̩æ Pirapākaraň ».
— Recent history: The ruling party, a brutal and undemocratic force but representative of a genuine grievance, pledged in negotiations with ශ්රී ලංකා « Śrī Lãkā » to operate more as a political force, and to practice pluralism in the areas they controlled. They also announced a willingness to accept autonomy rather than full independence, and presented a plan for autonomy. Their தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு « Tamizt Tēcijak Kūt̩t̩amæppu » placed third in island-wide parliamentary voting in 2004, but the subsequent government of ශ්රී ලංකා « Śrī Lãkā » was less open to negotiation, and engaged in an effective military offensive. It captured கிளிநொச்சி « Kil̩inocci », and eventually all of the unrecognized state’s territory, and killed பிரபாகரன் « Pirapākaraň ».
— Updated: 2009 May 22.