Officially: Republic of South Sudan.
Seat of government: Juba.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Dominant-party state; theoretically, the president is elected directly, and the National Legislature consists of a National Legislative Assembly, with members elected directly, and a Council of States, with members chosen by state legislatures and appointed by the president.
Governing party: Sudan People’s Liberation Movement.
Head of government: Salva Kiir, president.
Assessment: Recognized as part of السودان « ɔal-Sūdān » until 2011, though some parts had never been in the control of السودان « ɔal-Sūdān », dating to its own independence in 1956. The abolition on a southern autonomous region in 1983 led to increased fighting and ultimately the centralization of the SPLM. A 2005 ceasefire with the north finally held, with provision for independent monitoring. A six-year period of autonomy followed by a referendum on independence in 2011 was agreed, as well as control of land and resources. Salva Kiir took over after the death of longtime leader Garaŋ John De Mabior (1983-2005). The referendum passed overwhelmingly; recognized independence followed later in 2011. Disagreements over the border have not been resolved. African groups and the portion of the SPLM left in السودان « ɔal-Sūdān » North, functioning as حركة الشعبية لتحرير السودان – الشمال « Harakaḧ ɔal-Šacbīaḧ li-Tahrīr ɔal-Sūdān – ɔal-Šamāl », have taken territory on the border; technically this group is part of الجبهة الثورية السودان « ɔal-Ĝabhaḧ ɔal-Þaŭrīaḧ ɔal-Sūdān », formed in 2011. In 2013, the SPLM split amid fighting over power, centralization, and ethnicity; vice-president Riek Machar (of the Naadh) was fired by Kiir (a Muɔŋjäŋ, like Garaŋ); political and ethnic fighting broke out and Machar ended up as the opposition leader. In 2015, Kiir’s term was extended to 2018.
FH: 6-6, not free.
Updated: 2014 December 4.