Officially: Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliland; الجمهورية ارض الصومال « ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ Ɔard ɔal-Sūmāl ».
English: Somaliland.
Seat of government: Hargeysa.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. Parliament (Baarlamaanka) consists of a House of Representatives (Golaha Wakiilada), elected by party-list proportional representation in geographical constituencies and responsible for approving ministers, and a House of Elders (Golaha Guurtida), representing traditional clan interests.
Governing party: Kulmiye Nabad, Midnimo, iyo Horumar.
Head of government: Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud (Siilaanyo), Kulmiye, president.
Opposition parties: Ururka Dimuqraadiga Umada Bahawday (UDUB), led by Daahir Riyaale Kaahin; Ururka Cadaalada iyo Daryeelka, led by Faysal Cali Waraabe; Wadaani, led by Cabdiraxmaan Maxamed Cabdillaahi (Cirro).
Recent history: Has been independent and stable since the 1991 collapse of the Maxamed Siyaad Bare régime in Soomaaliya, though never recognized. The populace voted peacefully for official separation from the rest of Soomaaliya in 2001, an act that is being ignored by other governments. The relative political stability of Soomaaliland had come to some extent at the price of liberalism during the presidency of Riyaale (2002-10), with the arrest of opposition leader Suleymaan Maxamed Adan on treason charges. Riyaale first took office on the 2002 death of Maxamed Ibraahim Cigaal (1993-2002). Riyaale was reelected in 2003, being challenged by Siilaanyo and Faysal Cali Waraabe of UCID; the margin over Siilaanyo was miniscule. A 2005 parliamentary election among UDUB, Kulmiye, and UCID led to a plurality for the UDUB. In 2010, Riyaale lost the presidency to Siilaanyo. Soomaaliland controls the traditional gobolada of Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed, most of Toghdeer and Sanaag, and part of Sool, the last three contested with Khaatumo and the last two with Buntlaand.
FH: 4-5, partly free.
Updated: 2014 December 11.