SOOMAALIYA ― FEDERAALKA
— Officially: Jamhuuriyada Federaalka Soomaaliya; جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية « Ĝumhurīaḧ ɔal-Sūmāl ɔal-Fidarālīaḧ ».
— English: (Federal) Somalia.
— Seat of government: Muqdisho.
— Status: Not democratic.
— Structure: Condominium of an indigenous authority and the government of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija »; the president is chosen by parliament, itself chosen by elders and other powerbrokers.
— Heads of government: Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed (Farmaajo), president; Xasan Cali Khayre, prime minister; ኃይለማሪያም ደሳለኝ « Ĥajəlämarijamə Däsaläñə », prime minister of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija ».
— Assessment: Recognized government, but controlling only a small part of the recognized territory, and only with the help of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija ». The south of Soomaaliya has been unstable since the collapse of the régime of Maxamed Siyaad Bare (1969-91), leading to numerous, competing governments and freqent war and warlordism. The current state grew out of the recognized but largely powerless Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, based in exile and then in Baydhabo. While Soomaaliland and Puntland were stable governments in the north, the rise of the first real central government for the south, the Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, in 2006 largely ended warlordism for a time, but disturbed foreign governments, including that of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija », which invaded, defeating the Maxkamadaha by the end of the year. The DFK was installed in Muqdisho, and warlordism returned. The radical wing of the Maxkamadaha emerged as a guerrilla resistance, the Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab. For a time, the army of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija » controlled much of the territory formerly held by the Maxkamadaha. The recognized administration, back to the DFK, has often been composed of and controlled by warlords. Warlord and former Puntland ruler Cabdulaahi Yuusuf Axmed (2004-8) was its president; he resigned in a dispute over the replacement of the “prime minister” and over negotiations with Islamists. Cali Maxamed Geedi (2004-7) was his prime minister, replaced by Nuur Xasan Xuseen (Nuur Cade) (2007-9). The speaker of the unelected transitional parliament, Shariif Xasan Sheekh Aadan, was the leading advocate of compromise with the Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, and was dismissed. Even before the withdrawal of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija » to border regions in 2009, various Islamist groups were taking control of the south. Eventually Alshabaab became the leading government of the south. The moderate former co-leader of the Maxkamadaha Islaamiga, Shariif Sheekh Axmed, was chosen “president” of the powerless recognized administration (2009-12), with Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharma’arke as “prime minister” (2009-10, 2014-7). While African Union troops had remained in support of the DFK, it was the reentry of ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija » in 2011 that turned the tide against Alshabaab. The DFK and African Union took all of Muqdisho that year, and the last city held by Alshabaab, Kismaayo, fell to DFK, AU, and allied militias, thanks to intervention by Kenya.
Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud (2012-7) preceded Farmaajo as president of the recognized administration, which had by his accession acquired a degree of actual power.
— FH: 7-7, not free (for Soomaaliya as a whole).
— Updated: 2017 March 23.