— Also: Piruw.
— Officially: República del Perú; Piruw Mama Llaqta; Piruw Suyu.
— Seat of government: Lima.
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: The president is elected directly. The legislature (Congreso) is elected by proportional representation.
— Heads of government: Ollanta Humala Tasso, PNP, president; Pedro Cateriano, prime minister.
— Congessional parties: Gana Perú (principally Partido Nacionalista Peruano), led by Humala; Fuerza 2011, led by Keiko Fujimori; Perú Posible, led by Alejandro Toledo; Alianza por el Gran Cambio, led by Pedro Pablo Kuczynski; Alianza Solidaridad Nacional, led by Luis Castañeda; Partido Aprista Peruano, led by Alan García.
— Recent history: Democracy was restored in 2001 with the election of Toledo (2001-6), who led the opposition to autocrat Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), who was originally elected democratically. Toledo’s presidency was troubled and erratic, with inadequate support in Congress. A presidential election to replace Toledo went to a runoff between Humala of the PNP (and Unión por el Perú) and Aprista Alan García, which García won. In 2011, Humala ran again, and defeated Keiko Fujimori, Alberto’s daughter, in a runoff. In 2015, Ana Jara (PM 2014-5) was removed by censure of the legislature.
— FH: 2-3, free. Econ: 6.31 (70), flawed democracy.
— Updated: 2015 April 26.