PERÚ
Also: Piruw.
Officially: República del Perú; Piruw Mama Llaqta; Piruw Suyu.
Seat of government: Lima.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. The legislature (Congreso) is elected by party-list proportional representation within multi-member districts.
Heads of government: Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, president (since 2016); Mercedes Aráoz, prime minister (since 2017).
Congessional parties: Fuerza Popular, led by Keiko Fujimori; Peruanos Por el Kambio, led by Kuczynski; Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida, y Libertad, led by Verónika Mendoza; Alianza para el Progreso del Perú, led by César Acuña; Alianza Popular (including Partido Aprista Peruano), led by Alan García; Acción Popular.
Recent history: Democracy was restored in 2001 with the election of Alejandro Toledo (2001-6), who led the opposition to autocrat Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), who was originally elected democratically. Toledo’s presidency was troubled and erratic, with inadequate support in Congress. A presidential election to replace Toledo went to a runoff between Ollanta Humala of the Partido Nacionalista Peruano (and Unión por el Perú) and Aprista Alan García (1985-90, 2006-11), which García won. In 2011, Humala (2011-6) ran again, and defeated Keiko Fujimori, Alberto’s daughter, in a runoff. In 2015, Ana Jara (PM 2014-5) was removed by censure of the legislature. In the 2016 elections, Fujimori placed first, but lost in a runoff to Kuczynski; her Fuerza Popular won a majority in the Congreso on 36% of the popular vote. Kuczynski faced impeachment proceedings in 2017 but FP dissidents blocked the impeachment, reportedly in return for releasing Alberto Fujimori, who was promptly pardoned and released.
FH: 2-3, free. Econ: 6.31 (70), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2017 December 24.
 

O.T. FORD