پاکستان « PĀKISTĀN »
— Officially: اسلامى جمهوريه پاكستان « Ɔislāmī Ĝumhūrīah-i Pākistān »; Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
— Seat of government: اسلام آباد « Ɔislām Ɔābād ».
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: The prime minister (also وزیر اعظم « Ŭazīr-e Ɔacđam ») is chosen by the National Assembly (also قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان « Qaŭmī Assembly Pākistān »), elected in geographical constituencies, modified by proportional allocation of seats to women and minorities. The Parliament (also مجلس شورى « Maĝlis-e Šūraj ») comprises the Assembly and the Senate (also سینیٹ).
— Governing parties: پاکستان مسلم ليگ – نواز « Pākistān Muslim League – Naŭāz »; جمعیت علماء اسلام – فصل « Ĝamcīat Culemāɔ-e Ɔislām – Fasl »; پاکستان مسلم ليگ – فنکشنل « Pākistān Muslim League – Functional ».
— Head of government: نواز شريف « Naŭāz Šarīf », پمل-ن « PML-N », prime minister.
— Chief opposition parties: پاکستان پيپلز پارٽى « Pākistān People’s Party »; پاکستان تحريک انصاف « Pākistān Tahrīk-e Ɔinsāf »; متحدہ قومی موومنٹ « Mut:ahidah Qaŭmī Movement ».
— Assessment: Troubled, imperfect democracy with history of frequent military rule. The dictatorship of پرويز مشرف « Perŭejz Mušaraf » (1999-2008) was excused its abuses for its help against the طالبان « Tālibān », a body partially created and still partially supported by پاکستان « Pākistān »’s Inter-Services Intelligence. Army chief of staff پرويز « Perŭejz » overthrew a democracy (albeit corrupt) led by نواز « Naŭāz » for trying to fire him; he assumed the presidency in 2001 and formalized the autocracy he had constructed, staging a 2002 referendum to keep his position. Dubious elections were held for a new parliament that year, which پرويز « Perŭejz » ultimately controlled through his پاکستان مسلم ليگ – قائد « Pākistān Muslim League – Qāỉd »; he was granted even more power in 2003 in exchange for a mere promise to stand down as military chief in a year, which he abandoned. A supposed parliamentary reelection for پرويز « Perŭejz » in 2007, again coupled with a promise to stand down as army chief, was contested in the supreme court; before it could rule, پرويز « Perŭejz » suspended the constitution and imposed emergency rule. He finally resigned as army chief of staff that year, but only after a installing a supreme court that approved another term in office. Still later that year, shortly before promised elections, opposition leader بينظير ڀٽو « Bejnađīr B‛ut:oŭ » of the پپپ « PPP » was assassinated. The elections were postponed to 2008, largely to improve the ruling party’s chances, but in the event, it was routed, with opposition parties, including the two main (پپپ « PPP » and پمل-ن « PML-N »), making large gains. A short period of co-government ended with disagreement about reinstating judges; the نواز « Naŭāz » group withdrew more than once from the administration, to provide outside support ad hoc and finally to sit in opposition. Proceedings were planned to impeach پرويز « Perŭejz » and thus complete the return to democracy; he resigned before the proceedings began. The پپپ « PPP » nominated آصف علی زرداری « Ɔāsif Calī Zardārī » (widower of ڀٽو « B‛ut:oŭ ») to succeed him, without provision to restore the primacy of the premiership. زرداری « Zardārī » thus held the tools designed by پرويز « Perŭejz » to keep power from parliament. He did later, though, agree to the restoration of fired judges, in response to an opposition and civil-society campaign. The پمل-ن « PML-N » won a near-majority in 2013 elections, and the government became parliamentary once more.
— FH: 4-5, partly free (not democratic); 6-5, not free (for كشمير « Kašmīr »). Econ: 4.46 (108), hybrid.
— Updated: 2015 March 18.