— Also: Nàìjíríà; Nijeriya; Niiseriya; Naìjíríyà.
— Officially: Federal Republic of Nigeria.
— Seat of government: Abuja.
— Status: Not democratic.
— Structure: Dominant-party state. Theoretically, the president is elected directly. The legislature (National Assembly) consists of two chambers, a House of Representatives and a Senate, each theoretically elected in geographical constituencies.
— Chief governing party: All Progressives Congress (Action Congress of Nigeria; Congress for Progressive Change; All Nigeria Peoples Party).
— Head of government: Muhammadu Buhari, APC, president.
— Chief opposition party: People’s Democratic Party.
— Assessment: Became democratic in 1999 after numerous military governments, and the deaths of several notable dissidents, specifically Mọṣud Abiọla (actual winner of the 1993 presidential election), Ken Saro-Wiwa, and Shehu Musa Yar’Adua. One military régime (1966-79) was dismantled by Ọlúṣẹ́gun Ọbásanjọ́ (1976-9). The most recent was the régime of Ibrahim Babangida (1983-93), continued after a palace coup by Sani Abacha (1993-8). Ọbásanjọ́ (1999-2007) was the first president elected after Abacha’s death. But even while democratic the state has maintained forced nationality, and blocked organized labor activity. A serious divide has emerged in the state over the adoption of الشريعة « ɔal-Šarīcaḧ » by majority-مسلم « Muslim » provinces (states) in the north, and international outcry over some of the sentencing, including stoning sentences for adultery, and in general over the division of power. The 2003 parliamentary and presidential elections were both won handily by the PDP, but the legitimacy of the elections was called into question after fraud in some areas. An attempt to alter the constitution to permit a third term for Ọbásanjọ́ was defeated; but he used his power to block opposition candidates in the 2007 election to replace him, in that and other ways facilitating a PDP victory, and maintaining much of his governmental influence as party chief. In the event, PDP candidate Umaru Musa Yar’Adua (brother of Shehu) was declared the winner with 70% of the vote, besting Buhari (figurehead of the Babangida régime, 1983-5) of the ANPP. His prolonged illness and absence abroad led to the installment, in 2010, of Goodluck Jonathan as acting president; Yar’Adua died later in the year. Jonathan was the official winner in a 2011 presidential election, with Buhari standing for the CPC and again finishing second, but notably winning all the northern provinces. Starting in 2014, the state lost control over territories in the northeast to Boko Haram; those territories were mostly retaken, with significant help from تشاد « Tšād », Niger, and Cameroun, before a 2015 presidential election. In that election, Buhari, standing for the APC coalition, defeated Jonathan.
KANEM-BORNU – BOKO HARAM
— Seat of government: Unknown; formerly Gwoza.
— Status: Not democratic.
— Governing party: جماعة اهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد « Ĝamācaḧ Ɔahl ɔal-Sun:aḧ lil-Dacaŭaḧ ŭaɔl-Ĝihād » (Boko Haram).
— Head of government: Abubakar Shekau, امير « ɔamīr ».
— Assessment: Kanuri-based religious militancy founded and first led by Mohammed Yusuf (killed in 2009). Held a significant amount of territory, and continues to engage in attacks, including the kidnapping of individuals. Largely displaced in early 2015 by a multi-state effort.
— FH: 4-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 3.77 (120), authoritarian.
— Updated: 2015 May 30.