नेपाल NĒPĀL
Officially: संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sg‛īja Lōktāntrika Ganatantra Nēpāl .
Seat of government: काठ्माडौं Kāt‛mād~ .
Status: Democratic, but questionable.
Structure: The Constituent Assembly is elected in geographical constituencies, modified by proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister and the president, with the former being more powerful.
Governing parties: नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी एमाले Nēpāl Communist Party – ĒMāLē ; नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी माओवादी-केन्द्र Nēpāl Communist Party – Māōvādī-Kēndra ; राष्ट्रिय प्रजातन्त्र पार्टी नेपाल Rāstrīja Prajātantra Party – Nēpāl ; मधेसी जन अधिकार फोरम Mad‛ēsī Jana Ad‛ikār P‛ōram .
Heads of government: प्रचण्ड Pracanda (पुष्प कमल दाहाल Puspa Kamal Dāhāl ), माओवादी Māōvādī , prime minister; विद्या देवी भण्डारी Vid‛ā Dēvī B‛andārī , एमाले ĒMāLē , president.
Chief opposition party: नेपाली कांग्रेस Nēpālī Congress , led by शेर बहादुर देउबा Śēr Bahādur Dēubā .
Other parties: राष्ट्रिय प्रजातन्त्र पार्टी Rāstrīja Prajātantra Party ; तराई-मधेश लोकतान्त्रिक पार्टी Tarāī-Mad‛ēś Lōktāntrik Pārtī .
Recent history: Was, in theory, a constitutional monarchy. The माओवादी Māōvādī revolt controlled most of the states nominal territory and eventually besieged the royalist government. In 2002, the prime minister, शेर बहादुर देउबा Śēr Bahādur Dēubā (1995-7, 2001-2), was dismissed by the monarch, ज्ञनेन्द्र Janēndra (2001-8), who took executive power. देउबा Dēubā was reappointed in 2004 to replace royalist सूर्य बहादुर थापा Sūrja Bahādur T‛āpā (2003-4), but in 2005, ज्ञनेन्द्र Janēndra dismissed that government as well, and placed its members under house arrest, introducing his own state of emergency. After the consolidation of the opposition and defiant street protests, ज्ञनेन्द्र Janēndra pledged to return executive power to a prime minister chosen by the democratic parties. The parties declined the offer, protests continued, and parliament was reinstated in 2006; गिरिजा प्रसाद कोइराला Girijā Prasād Kōirālā (1991-4, 1998-9, 2000-1, 2006-8, cousin of सुशील Suśīl ) of the नेपाली कांग्रेस Nēpālī Congress became prime minister. The parliament voted in favor of an elected assembly to reconsider the constitution; it also, pending the assembly, asserted its right to control the military and determine the royal succession. According to an agreement between कोइराला Kōirālā and प्रचण्ड Pracanda , leader of the revolt, parliament was dissolved in 2007. A unified assembly and administration were formed, though the माओवादी Māōvādī party withdrew temporarily from the administration; the other parties agreed to abolish the monarchy to persuade it to return. Assembly elections took place in 2008; the माओवादी Māōvādī party won by far the largest share of seats in the assembly. कोइराला Kōirālā refused for several weeks to resign as premier, seeking concessions possibly including the presidency, but eventually relented. But an ad-hoc coalition elected यादव Jādav to the presidency (originally to have been a ceremonial position), leading to a (temporary) suspension of attempts by प्रचण्ड Pracanda to form a government. That government was eventually formed, but प्रचण्ड Pracanda (2008-9) resigned when यादव Jādav and other parties supported the retention of the chief of army staff, after significant insubordination involving the integration of माओवादी Māōvādī fighters into the army. Other parties then formed a coalition under एमाले ĒMāLē , led by माधव कुमार नेपाल Mād‛av Kumār Nēpāl (2009-11) and बाबुराम भट्टराई Bāburām B‛attarāī (2011-13). In 2013, with no new constitution agreed, a second constituent assembly was elected, with नेपाली कांग्रेस Nēpālī Congress the dominant party.
FH: 4-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 4.05 (115), hybrid.
Updated: 2016 August 19.
 

O.T. FORD