Officially: República de Moçambique.
English: Mozambique.
Seat of government: Maputo.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Dominant-party state. In theory, the president is elected directly, and appoints the prime minister, while the legislature (Assembleia da República) is elected through party-list proportional representation.
Governing party: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique.
Heads of government: Felipe Nyusi, FreLiMo, president; Carlos Agostinho do Rosário, FreLiMo, prime minister.
Opposition parties: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana – União Electoral, led by Afonso Dhlakama; Movimento Democrático de Moçambique, led by Daviz Simango.
Assessment: Experienced a turbulent period after independence (1975) involving the linked issues of white supremacy and militant anti-socialism, with FreLiMo as the socialist independence movement and post-colonial unelected ruling party, and ReNaMo founded to contest this with support from (Southern) Rhodesia and apartheid-era South Africa. The war ended in 1992 (shortly after democracy in South Africa) with a million dead. Samora Machel (1975-86) served as president until killed in a plane crash, succeeded by Joaquim Chissano (1986-2005). Both parties participated in and accepted the 1994 elections, with Chissano continuing as president (defeating Dhlakama, nominated by ReNaMo in every race so far), and FreLimo winning a slight majority over ReNaMo in the parliament. The results in 1999 were similar, but with a closer gap in the Chissano-Dhlakama race, and a larger gap for parliament. In 2004, FreLiMo nominated Armando Guebuza (2005-15), and the official presidential and parliamentary results were a strong win for FreLiMo, but ReNaMo rejected them. The official gap widened further in 2009, and electoral irregularities mounted. In 2014, Nyusi was nominated for FreLiMo; the results were closer but not reliable.
FH: 3-3, partly free (democratic). Econ: 5.49 (92), hybrid.
Updated: 2015 March 8.