— English: Mongolia.
— Seat of government: Улаан Баатар.
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: Parliament (Улсын Их Хурал) is elected in geographical constituencies (multiple members for each constituency plurality), and chooses the prime minister. The president is elected directly.
— Governing party: Ардчилсан Нам.
— Heads of government: Чимэдийн Сайханбилэг, АН, prime minister; Цахиагийн Элбэгдорж, АН, president.
— Chief opposition party: Монгол Ардын Нам, led by Миеэгомбын Энхболд.
— Recent history: After a 2000 parliamentary election in which the Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам (now the МАН) claimed nearly every seat (with a bare majority of the popular vote), elections in 2004 saw the АН-led Эх Орон-Ардчилан pull even; Элбэгдорж became prime minister (2004-6), and former prime minister (2000-4) Намбарын Энхбаяр of the МАХН became speaker of parliament in a power-sharing deal, and later became president (2005-9) after a popular election. Eventually the МАХН pulled its ministers from the ЭОА-led government, prompting its dissolution by parliament. Энхболд (2006-7) became prime minister; he was replaced as party chair and prime minister by Санжаагийн Баяр (2007-9). Parliamentary elections in 2008 led to a victory for the МАХН and protests of fraud from the АН; a brief spell of rioting accompanied the protests, but international observers endorsed the conduct of the poll. Both parties accepted the victory of Элбэгдорж over Энхбаяр in the 2009 presidential election. The АН won the 2012 parliamentary elections, and Норовын Алтанхуяг (2012-4) became prime minister. Элбэгдорж was reelected in 2013. Сайханбилэг replaced Алтанхуяг in 2014.
— FH: 2-2, free. Econ: 6.60 (58), flawed democracy.
— Updated: 2015 March 24.