MÉXICO
Officially: Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
Seat of government: México.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly by plurality. The legislature (Congreso de la Unión) comprises the Cámara de Diputados, elected by plurality in geographical constituencies, modified by party-list proportional representation, and the Senado, elected in the provinces (estados), with two seats to the party winning a plurality, one to the party finishing second, and the whole modified by party-list proportional representation.
Governing party: Partido Revolucionario Institucional; supported in the Congreso by Partido Verde Ecologista de México.
Head of government: Enrique Peña Nieto, PRI, president.
Opposition parties: Partido Acción Nacional; Partido de la Revolución Democrática.
Assessment: Congress is divided among the PRI, the PAN, and the PRD. The PRI, under various names, ruled for seventy-six years, while holding and fixing elections. It was founded by jefe máximo Plutarco Elías Calles (1924-34) as the Partido Nacional Revolucionario in 1929, became the Partido de la Revolutión Mexicana, and the PRI in 1946. The victory of penultimate president Vicente Fox (2000-6) of the PAN in 2000 was not the first opposition victory, merely the first acknowledged. Felipe Calderón (2006-12), also of the PAN, won a narrow victory over Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the PRD in 2006 to succeed Fox, with Congress again divided. López Obrador challenged the official result. In 2012, Peña Nieto won the presidency over López Obrador and Josefina Vázquez Mota of the PAN; the PRI won a plurality in Congress. For several years, México has been experiencing dramatic violence related to drug organizations, and some municipalities have effectively been under criminal control.
FH: 2-3, free. Econ: 6.78 (55), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2013 November 17.
 

O.T. FORD