Officially: République du Mali.
Seat of government: Bamako.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. Parliament is elected through geographical constituencies.
Heads of government: Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, RPM, president; Modibo Keïta, prime minister.
Chief parliamentary parties: Rassemblement pour le Mali; Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali – Parti Pan-Africain pour la Liberté, la Solidarité, et la Justice; Union pour la République et la Démocratie.
Assessment: Was, for a time, one of Africa’s model democracies, but also experienced government corruption. Dictator Moussa Traoré (1968-1991) was overthrown by a military junta led by Amadou Toumani Touré; democratic elections were held and the junta stepped down in 1992. Alpha Oumar Konaré (1992-2002) became president, and served for two terms. The 2002 presidential election brought charges of fraud, after the ruling-coalition candidate Soumaïla Cissé placed in a runoff by taking nearly all of the votes in many districts. He was eventually defeated by Amadou (2002-12), who was reelected in 2007. In 2012, shortly before a presidential election in which Amadou was not taking part, a group of soldiers disgruntled about a northern insurgency seized power and ruled briefly as the Comité National pour le Redressement de la Démocratie et la Restauration de l’État, led by Amadou Haya Sanogo. Subsequently, northern Mali was completely lost to several insurgent groups until a 2013 military intervention by France. ATT formally resigned in 2012 to facilitate a transfer of power from the junta to the parliamentary speaker, Dioncounda Traoré, as interim president. A 2013 election for the presidency was won by Ibrahim Keïta; his RPM also won a plurality in parliamentary elections held later that year.
FH: 5-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 5.12 (97), hybrid.
Updated: 2015 April 25.