Officially: Lietuvos Respublika.
English: Lithuania.
Seat of government: Vilnius.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The parliament (Seimas) is elected in geographical constituencies, modified by party-list proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister. The president is elected directly.
Governing parties: Lietuvos Valstiečių ir Žaliųjų Sąjunga, led by Ramūnas Karbauskis; Lietuvos Socialdemokratų Partija, led by Algirdas Butkevičius.
Heads of government: Saulius Skvernelis, prime minister (since 2016); Dalia Grybauskaitė, president (since 2009).
Other parliamentary parties: Tėvynės Sąjunga – Lietuvos Krikščionys Demokratai, led by Gabrielius Landsbergis; Lietuvos Respublikos Liberalų Sąjūdis, led by Remigijus Šimašius; Akcja Wyborcza Polaków na Litwie, led by Waldemar Tomaszewski; Tvarka ir Teisingumas, led by Rolandas Paksas; Darbo Partija, led by Loreta Graužinienė; Lietuvos Centro Partija, led by Naglis Puteikis; Lietuvos Žaliųjų Partija, led by Linas Balsys; Lietuvos Sąrašas, led by Darius Kuolys.
Assessment: Strongest opponent of Большевик « Bolĵševik » rule, but has taken an uneven path to liberalism. Two-time prime minister Paksas (1999, 2000-1), a rightist who drew comparisons with some of Europe’s ultranationalists, was elected president in 2002-3, but impeached and removed for corruption in 2004. Algirdas Brazauskas (2001-6) of the LSDP and his cabinet resigned in 2006 following the withdrawal of their last coalition partner, the DP; after rejecting Zigmantas Balčytis, parliament confirmed Gediminas Kirkilas (2006-8) of the LSDP. In 2008 parliamentary elections, strong showings for the TS-LKD, the Tautos Prisikėlimo Partija, led by Arūnas Valinskas, and TT, led by Paksas, led to a change of government; Andrius Kubilius (1999-2000, 2008-12) became prime minister a second time, leading a coalition with LRLS and Liberalų ir Centro Sąjunga. A 2009 election to replace president Valdas Adamkus was won in the first round by Grybauskaitė, she was reelected in 2014. In 2012 parliamentary elections, the LSDP finished first, and Butkevičius (2012-6) became prime minister. In 2016, the TS-LKD won a slight plurality of the vote, but LVŽS, previously with just one seat, won a large plurality of seats.
FH: 1-1, free. Econ: 7.36 (42), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2017 March 27.