— Officially: Fürstentum Liechtenstein.
— Seat of government: Vaduz.
— Status: Semi-democratic.
— Structure: The Fürst is hereditary; his Stellvertreter is simply his heir. The parliament (Landtag) is elected in two multi-member geographical constuencies with proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister (Regierungschef).
— Governing parties: House of Liechtenstein; Vaterländische Union; Fortschrittliche Bürgerpartei.
— Heads of government: Alois von und zu Liechtenstein, Stellvertreter; Hans-Adam von und zu Liechtenstein, Fürst; Daniel Risch, VU, Regierungschef.
— Other parliamentary parties: Freie Liste; Demokraten pro Liechtenstein.
— Assessment: Hans-Adam demanded and was granted (in a 2003 referendum) reforms which made him head of government, with son Alois now as his deputy. He already had authority to dissolve parliament and call elections; he now has authority to appoint and dismiss governments and judges and veto legislation, though no longer to rule by decree for an unlimited time. The Fortschrittliche Bürgerpartei under Otmar Hasler (2001-9) lost its majority in parliament in the 2005 elections, holding twelve seats to ten for the Vaterländische Union and three for the Freie Liste. Elections in 2009 produced a narrow majority for the VU, and Klaus Tschütscher (2009-13) became Regierungschef. Another referendum in 2012 retained the Fürst’s veto over legislation. In 2013, the FBP won a slight plurality and the Unabhängigen entered parliament for the first time; the FBP and VU formed a grand coaltion, led by Adrian Hasler (2013-21) of the FBP. In a 2017 election, the FBP again won a slight plurality, with the Unabhängigen making the largest gain. The 2021 election ended in a near tie, with the VU outpolling the FBP by 42 votes; Die Unabhängigen lost all their seats.
— FH: 1-1, free.
— Updated: 2021 June 20.