لبنان LUBNĀN
Officially: الجمهورية اللبنانية ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ ɔal-Lubnānīaḧ .
English: Lebanon.
Seat of government: بيروت Bajrūt .
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Shared government of an elected parliament, which chooses the official heads of government, and حزب الله Hizb ɔul-Lah , which has used its significant armed forces to influence governmental outcomes. Since 1943, the official government has been organized according to الميثاق الوطنى ɔal-Mīāq ɔal-Ŭatanī , which gives Christians disproportionate representation in parliament, and under which the prime minister is always a سنى Sun:ī , the president a Christian, and the speaker of parliament a شيعى īcī .
Governing parties: حلف 14 آذار Hilf 14 Ɔāār ; حلف 8 آذار Hilf 8 Ɔāār .
Heads of government: سعد الحريرى Sacd ɔal-Harīrī , prime minister (since 2016); ميشال عون Mīajl Cūn , president (since 2016).
Assessment: Territory in transition, after decades of rule by سوريا Sūrīā (1976-2005). The 2000 elections saw opponents of the administration (though not of سوريا Sūrīā ) make strong gains. As a province de facto of سوريا Sūrīā it was destabilized in 2005 by the assassination of former prime minister رفيق الحيري Rafīq ɔal-Harīrī (1992-8, 2000-4), who had resigned to oppose the government of سوريا Sūrīā . Competing protests on March (آذار Ɔāār ) 8, in support of سوريا Sūrīā , and March 14, opposed to its presence, led to the withdrawal of سوريا Sūrīā and has defined politics since. Under popular pressure, the successor of الحيري ɔal-Harīrī , عمر كرامي Cumar Karāmī (1990-2, 2004-5), resigned; the opposition forced a compromise candidate in نجيب ميقاتي Naĝīb Mīqātī (2005, 2011-4). New parliamentary elections in 2005 secured a majority for the opposition حلف 14 آذار Hilf 14 Ɔāār . A national-unity administration was then formed, led by فؤاد السنيورة Fủād ɔal-Sinjūraḧ (2005-9), including pro-سوريا Sūrīā parties, notably حزب الله Hizb ɔul-Lah and حركة أمل Harakaḧ Ɔamal ; they withdrew in 2006, demanding veto power. Earlier in 2006, حزب الله Hizb ɔul-Lah prompted a destructive war with ישראל Jiśraɔel through a cross-border kidnapping. The presidency, which had been held by اميل لحود mile Lahūd (1998-2007), an appointee of سوريا Sūrīā , became vacant with the expiration of his term, with parliament unable to reach quorum to elect a successor. That successor was designated as army chief ميشيل سليمان Michel Sulajmān (2008-14), but other disagreements held up the final election. Only following violence in 2008 by حزب الله Hizb ɔul-Lah did the governing coalition finally yield to its demands for veto power in a restored unity government. Elections in 2009 were won by the حلف 14 آذار Hilf 14 Ɔāār ; alliance head (and son of رفيق Rafīq ) سعد الحريرى Sacd ɔal-Harīrī (2009-11, 2016-) became prime minister under a new national-unity government. But the implication of حزب الله Hizb ɔul-Lah in the assassination of رفيق الحيري Rafīq ɔal-Harīrī led to its withdrawal from the unity government in 2011 and then the return of ميقاتي Mīqātī , backed by حلف 8 آذار Hilf 8 Ɔāār . In 2013, disagreements over election preparations, aggravated by the war in سوريا Sūrīā , led to the election of تمام سلام Tam:ām Salām (2014-6) with cross-aisle support, but backed primarily by حلف 14 آذار Hilf 14 Ɔāār . In 2016, the vacant presidency was finally filled, and الحريرى ɔal-Harīrī returned as prime minister.
FH: 5-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 5.05 (99), hybrid. (For لبنان Lubnān as a whole.)
Updated: 2017 March 26.
 

O.T. FORD