Officially: Кыргыз Республикасы « Kyrgyz Respublikasy ».
Seat of government: Бишкек « Biškek ».
Status: Democratic.
Structure: Parliament (Жогорку Кеңеш « Žogorku Keŋeš ») is elected by party-list proportional representation (capped at a slight majority), and chooses the prime minister. The president is elected directly.
Heads of government: Мухамметкалый Абулгазиев « Muxammetkalyĭ Abulgaziev », prime minister (since 2018); Сооронбай Жээнбеков « Sooronbaĭ Žččnbekov », КСДП « KSDP », president (since 2017).
Parliamentary parties: Кыргызстандын Социал-демократиялык Партиясы « Kyrgyzstandyn Social-demokratijalyk Partijasy », led by Алмаз Атамбаев « Almaz Atambaev »; Республика–Ата-журт « Respublika–Ata-žurt », led by Өмүрбек Бабанов « Ömürbek Babanov »; Кыргызстан « Kyrgyzstan »; Өнүгүү-Прогресс « Önügüü-Progress »; Бир Бол « Bir Bol »; Ата Мекен « Ata Meken », led by Өмүрбек Текебаев « Ömürbek Tekebaev ».
Recent history: After independence (1991), the state was relatively liberal for Türkestan, but became steadily more dictatorial. Аскар Акаев « Askar Akaev » (1990-2005) was officially reelected in a tainted vote in 2000, tainted by electoral fraud, an unfair campaign, and the absence of opposition leader Феликс Кулов « Feliks Kulov », who was imprisoned and was barred from the poll for refusing a language test. A dubious referendum (2003) then approved constitutional changes, and confirmed Акаев « Akaev » in office. A new parliament chosen in fraudulent elections in 2005 was almost entirely without opposition members. In response, opposition protesters began seizing public spaces and eventually whole towns, starting in the south of the state, and culminating in Бишкек « Biškek ». Акаев « Akaev » fled; an interim collective leadership took power, with Курманбек Бакиев « Kurmanbek Bakiev » as interim prime minister and opposition parliamentarian Ишенбай Кадырбеков « Išenbaĭ Kadyrbekov » as speaker. Кулов « Kulov », released from prison, ultimately became first deputy prime minister. Perversely, the interim administration endorsed the new parliament. Бакиев « Bakiev » won a presidential election in July and was inaugurated; he then appointed Кулов « Kulov » (2005-7) as prime minister. But constitutional changes reluctantly agreed by Бакиев « Bakiev » in 2007 made parliament the greater power. It rejected the renomination of Кулов « Kulov », who went into opposition. His replacement was Азим Исабеков « Azim Isabekov », who resigned after a few months to make way for Атамбаев « Atambaev », from the opposition. A referendum to approve a new constitution, with proportional representation and a theoretically more-independent parliament, was officially passed in 2007, with irregularities; but opposition parties were unrepresented in the resulting parliament, owing to distributional rules and apparent fraud. A presidential election in 2009 was officially won by Бакиев « Bakiev »; Атамбаев « Atambaev » withdrew on the day of the vote, claiming it would not be fair. In 2010, upset over corruption, utility fees, and the death of protesters, citizens ousted Бакиев « Bakiev », and opposition figures assumed power. A subsequent referendum approved a shift to parliamentary government, and confirmed Роза Отунбаева « Roza Otunbaeva » as president. The first parliamentary vote after the referendum, also in 2010, placed five parties into parliament. Ата-журт « Ata-žurt » finished first, but joined a coalition under Атамбаев « Atambaev » (2010-11) along with Республика « Respublika ». Атамбаев « Atambaev » won a presidential election in 2011 (in office, 2011-7); he was followed as prime minister by Бабанов « Babanov » (2011-2), and then two independents, Жантөрө Сатыбалдиев « Žantörö Satybaldiev » (2012-4) and Жоомарт Оторбаев « Žoomart Otorbaev » (2014-5), and minor-party figure Темир Сариев « Temir Sariev » (2015-6). A parliamentary election in 2015 saw a swing to the КСДП « KSDP », eventually leading to the premierships of Жээнбеков « Žččnbekov » (2016-7) and Сапар Исаков « Sapar Isakov » (2017-8), both of the КСДП « KSDP ». Жээнбеков « Žččnbekov » was elected to replace Атамбаев « Atambaev » in 2017. Исаков « Isakov » lost a vote of confidence in 2018 owing to intra-КСДП « KSDP » politics.
FH: 5-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 4.05 (114), hybrid.
Updated: 2018 April 21.