ايران « ƆĪRĀN »
Officially: جمهورى اسلامى ايران « Ĝumhūrī-e Ɔislāmī-e Ɔīrān ».
Seat of government: تهران « Teherān ».
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Government is headed by a رهبر « Rahbar » (ولى فقيه « Ŭalī Faqīh »), chosen for life (from the senior clerics) and theoretically supervised by the مجلس خبرگان رهبری « Maĝlis-e Xobregān-e Rahbarī »; all other bodies are effectively controlled by the رهبر « Rahbar ».
Governing party: Senior clergy.
Head of government: على خامنه اى « Calī Xāmenehɔī », رهبر « Rahbar », assisted by حسن روحانی « Hasan Roŭhānī », president.
Conventional political parties: جامعه روحانیت مبارز‎ « Ĝāmeceh-e Roŭhānīat-e Mobārez »; ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی‎ « Ɔỉtlāf-e Ɔābādgarān-e Ɔīrān-e Ɔislāmī »; حزب اعتدال و توسعه « Hizb Ɔectedāl ŭa Toŭseceh »; جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی « Ĝabhah-e Mošārekat-e Ɔīrān-e Ɔislāmī »; مجمع روحانیون مبارز « Maĝmac-e Roŭhānīūn-e Mobārez ».
Assessment: Elections have frequently taken place, but the appointed شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی « Šūrā-je Negahbān-e Qānūn-e Ɔasāsī » has used its power to skew elections in favor of religious conservatives. Parliamentary elections have again seen reformist candidates disqualified en masse. This has led to a conservative parliament, and a conservative presidency. Reformist president محمد خاتمى « Muham:ad Xātamī » (1997-2005), whose election was more or less democratic, had limited political power and failed to augment it, leading to disillusionment among reformers; turnout failure led to the election of محمود احمدى نژاد « Mehmūd Ɔahmedī Nežād » (2005-13) in 2005. He was officially reelected in 2009, over reformist challenger میرحسین موسوی « Mīr-Husajn Mūsaŭī », though the high turnout rendered the result unbelievable, and it was rejected by the incumbent’s reformist opponents in the جنبش سبز « Ĝonbeš-e Sabz », an unsuccessful people-power protest. احمدى نژاد « Ɔahmedī Nežād », meanwhile, seemed to be building his power and that of the presidency, in rivalry with خامنه اى « Xāmenehɔī ». A 2013 election to succeed احمدى نژاد « Ɔahmedī Nežād » was allowed, presumably by the will of خامنه اى « Xāmenehɔī », to end with the election of moderate reformer روحانی « Roŭhānī », but as yet there has been no significant liberalization of society.
FH: 6-6, not free. Econ: 2.83 (145), authoritarian.
Updated: 2014 November 19.
 

O.T. FORD