AYISI
Also: Haïti.
Officially: Repiblik d Ayisi; République d’Haïti.
Seat of government: Pòtoprens.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. The parliament (Asanble Nasyonal) comprises the Chanm Depite, elected in geographical constituencies, and the Sena, elected with equal representation in each department, and must approve the prime minister.
Heads of government: Jovenal Moïse, PHTK, president (since 2017); Jack Guy Lafontant, prime minister (since 2017).
Main legislative parties: Parti Haïtien Tèt Kale; Verite; Konvansyon Inite Demokratik; Òganizasyon Pèp Kap Lité; Lafanmi Lavalas; Layiti an Aksyon; Inite Patriyotik; Lig Altènativ pou Pwogrè ak Emansipasyon Ayisyèn; Fuzyon Sosyodemokrat Ayiti; Rezo Nasyonal Boukliye.
Recent history: Following the long, brutal reign of dictators François (Papa Doc) and Jean-Claude (Bébé Doc) Duvalier (1957-86, in total), and several more years of military rule, Jean-Bertrand Aristide (1991, 1994-6, 2001-4) was elected in 1991, overthrown soon after, and reinstated in 1994 following an international intervention. He was succeeded by ally René Préval (1996-2001, 2006-11). In 2001, Aristide returned to office. Though popular and popularly elected, he thwarted the democratic process to control the parliament. In 2004, he was forced into exile, replaced by Boniface Alexandre (2004-6), chief justice of the supreme court. Power in the country was then divided between the nominal government, international forces, Aristide’s Lafanmi Lavalas, and various armed groups responsible for capturing much of the country and driving Aristide out. A much-delayed presidential election was held in 2006; Préval was declared the winner in the first round in order to appease his rioting supporters. In 2010, a presidential election was held in which the official results placed Mirlande Manigat (wife of former president Leslie Manigat) of Rassemblement des Démocrates Nationaux Progressistes first and Préval ally Jude Célestin of Inite second; protests led to a second round in 2011 in which Manigat and Michel Martelly of Repons Peyizan were the candidates, with Martelly (2011-6) winning. Legislative elections at the same time produced dramatic party turnover, with RP having a plurality. A 2015 presidential election ended in dispute, with Moïse of PHTK and Célestin as the expected participants in a runoff; Moïse was alleged to be the beneficiary of vote fraud. Martelly left office before a resolution, succeeded by Senate president Jocelerme Privert (2016-7). Parliamentary elections in 2015 produced more turnover, with a plurality for PHTK (named for Martelly). A repeat presidential election was held in late 2016; Moïse was declared the winner with a first-round majority.
FH: 4-5, partly free (democratic). Econ: 4.19 (110), hybrid.
Updated: 2017 March 23.
 

O.T. FORD