— Officially: Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
— English: Germany
— Seat of government: Berlin.
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: The parliament comprises the Bundestag, elected in geographical constituencies modified by party-list proportional representation, which chooses the Bundeskanzler, and the Bundesrat, chosen by the governments of the Länder in rough proportion to population.
— Governing parties: Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands/Christlich-Soziale Union; Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands.
— Head of government: Angela Merkel, CDU, Bundeskanzlerin (since 2005).
— Other parliamentary parties: Alternative für Deutschland; Freie Demokratische Partei; Die Linke; Bündnis 90 – die Grünen.
— Assessment: Has worked to atone for the Nazi period through undertaking special burdens, and has been a leader in European integration. Dealing with resurgent nationalism and racism. Merkel first became Bundeskanzlerin in 2005 in a “grand coalition” of center-right (CDU-CSU) and center-left (SPD), both of which lost seats in the election; the CDU-CSU had a bare plurality in parliament over the SPD, and 51 members of the SPD voted against the confirmation of Merkel. Elections in 2009 gave the CDU-CSU enough of a plurality to govern with the FDP instead. In 2013 the CDU-CSU secured a large plurality, but the FDP collapsed, and Merkel formed another coalition with the SPD. A 2017 election saw a surge in support for non-major parties, particularly the far-right AfD, at the expense of the major parties.
— FH: 1-1, free. Econ: 8.82 (13), full democracy.
— Updated: 2017 December 24.