— Officially: Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
— English: Germany
— Seat of government: Berlin.
— Status: Democratic.
— Structure: The parliament comprises the Bundestag, elected in geographical constituencies modified by party-list proportional representation, which chooses the Bundeskanzler, and the Bundesrat, chosen by the governments of the Länder in rough proportion to population.
— Governing parties: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands; Bündnis 90 – die Grünen; Freie Demokratische Partei.
— Head of government: Olaf Scholz, SPD, Bundeskanzler (since 2021).
— Other parliamentary parties: Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands/Christlich-Soziale Union; Alternative für Deutschland; Die Linke.
— Assessment: Has worked to atone for the Nazi period through undertaking special burdens, and has been a leader in European integration. Dealing with resurgent nationalism and racism. Angela Merkel (2005-21) first became Bundeskanzlerin in 2005 in a “grand coalition” of center-right (CDU-CSU) and center-left (SPD), both of which lost seats in the election; the CDU-CSU had a bare plurality in parliament over the SPD, and 51 members of the SPD voted against the confirmation of Merkel. Elections in 2009 gave the CDU-CSU enough of a plurality to govern with the FDP instead. In 2013 the CDU-CSU secured a large plurality, but the FDP collapsed, and Merkel formed another coalition with the SPD. A 2017 election saw a surge in support for non-major parties, particularly the far-right AfD, at the expense of the major parties; the grand coalition continued. Merkel announced her retirement ahead of the 2021 election; that election ended with a large gain in seats for both the SPD and die Grünen. They and the FDP formed a new coalition.
— FH: 1-1, free. Econ: 8.82 (13), full democracy.
— Updated: 2022 July 18.