საქართველო « SAK‛ART‛VELO »
English: Georgia.
Seat of government: თბილისი « T‛bilisi ».
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The parliament is elected through geographical constituencies and party-list proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister. The president is elected directly.
Governing party: ქართული ოცნება « K‛art‛uli Oc‛neba ».
Heads of government: ირაკლი ღარიბაშვილი « Irakli Ğaribašvili », ქ.ო. « K‛O », prime minister; გრიგოლ მგალობლიშვილი « Grigol Mgaloblišvili », ქ.ო. « K‛O », president.
Parliamentary opposition party: ერთიანი ნაციონალური მოძრაობა « Ert‛iani Nac‛ionaluri Mozraoba ».
Recent history: Has been politically unstable for its entire independence (1991). Three minority territories, Аҧсны, Хуссар Ирыстон, and აჭარა « Ačara », effectively seceded after independence. When inaugural president ზვიად გამსახურდია « Zviad Gamsaxurdia » (1991-2) was forced out, ედუარდ შევარდნაძე « Eduard Ševardnaze » (1992-2003) was brought back from Москва to head the government. შევარდნაძე « Ševardnaze » was a noted liberal during his period as foreign minister of Россия, but autocratic after returning to საქართველო « Sak‛art‛velo ». Parliamentary polls were held in 2003, with clear government attempts to distort the vote. The effect diminished the opposition’s combined majority, and gave the party of შევარდნაძე « Ševardnaze », საქართველოს მოქალაქეთა კავშირი « Sak‛art‛velos Mok‛alak‛et‛a Kavširi », an unearned plurality. This prompted the ვარდების რევოლუცია « Vardebis Revoluc‛ia »: massive street protests; a “people power” seizure of parliament and the president’s office, with parliamentary speaker ნინო ბურჯანაძე « Nino Buržanaze » declaring herself interim president; შევარდნაძე « Ševardnaze » declaring a state of emergency, which troops mostly failed to enforce; the resignation of ედუარდ შევარდნაძე « Eduard Ševardnaze » (replaced as interim president by ბურჯანაძე « Buržanaze »); and new elections in early 2004, in which მიხეილ სააკაშვილი « Mixeil Saakašvili », standing for most opposition parties, was elected and inaugurated as president. Later in 2004, აჭარა « Ačara » was reincorporated after the resignation under pressure of autocrat ასლან აბაშიძე « Aslan Abašize » (1991-2004). Prime ministers under სააკაშვილი « Saakašvili » included ზურაბ ჟვანია « Zurab Žvania » (2004-5), who died, apparently accidentally, while in office; ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი « Zurab Noğaideli » (2005-7), who was replaced following anti-government protests, a government crackdown, and the calling of a snap presidential election; ლადო გურგენიძე « Lado Gurgenize » (2007-8); მგალობლიშვილი « Mgaloblišvili » (2008-9); and ნიკა გილაური « Nika Gilauri » (2009-12). სააკაშვილი « Saakašvili » resigned to campaign in the 2007 snap election; official results gave him a narrow win in the first round. In a subsequent parliamentary election, his ე.ნ.მ. « ENM » claimed four fifths of the seats. The opposition disputed both results. In 2008, military exchanges with Хуссар Ирыстон led to an attempt to reclaim the territory, which prompted an invasion by Россия and the likely permanent loss of Хуссар Ирыстон and Аҧсны. In 2012, a parliamentary election led to a majority for the coalition ქართული ოცნება « K‛art‛uli Oc‛neba », led by ბიძინა ივანიშვილი « Bizina Ivanišvili », who became prime minister (2012-3); he resigned after a constitutional change shifted power to parliament, succeeded by ღარიბაშვილი « Ğaribašvili ».
FH: 4-4, partly free (not democratic). Econ: 4.62 (104), hybrid.
Updated: 2014 November 19.
 

O.T. FORD