Also: Finland.
Officially: Suomen Tasavalta; Republiken Finland.
Seat of government: Helsinki / Helsingfors.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The parliament (eduskunta) is elected in multi-member geographical constituencies with a degree of proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister. The president is elected directly.
Governing parties: Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue; Suomen Keskusta; Vihreä Liitto; Vasemmistoliitto; Svenska Folkpartiet; Åländsk Samling.
Head of government: Sanna Marin, SDP, prime minister (since 2019).
Other parliamentary parties: Perussuomalaiset; Kansallinen Kokoomuspuolue; Kristillisdemokraatit.
Assessment: The previous president, Tarja Halonen (2000-12) of the SDP, was made even more of a figurehead and subsequently worked to reclaim influence; in 2006 she narrowly won reelection against Sauli Niinistö of the KKP. Niinistö (2012-) was chosen to replace her in 2012, in a runoff with Pekka Haavisto of the VL. In parliamentary elections in 2007, Kesk edged out the KKP for first place; the KKP was brought into the government, with SDP departing. In 2010, long-serving Kesk premier Matti Vanhanen (2003-10) resigned, replaced by Mari Kiviniemi (2010-1) of Kesk. A 2011 election saw the KKP win a plurality, and Jyrki Katainen (2011-4) became prime minister. Katainen stepped down in 2014, succeeded by Alexander Stubb (2014-5) of KKP. Kesk won a plurality in 2015, with KKP, PS, and SDP roughly tied for second; Juha Sipilä (2015-9) became prime minister. In the 2019 elections, the SDP finished in first, narrowly ahead of Perussuomalaiset and Kokoomus, while Kesk lost considerable ground; a left-leaning coalition was formed, first headed by Antti Rinne (2019) of SDP, until Kesk forced his resignation over a postal strike. In 2022, following the invasion of Україна « Ukrana » by Россия « Rossija », the government applied to join NATO.
FH: 1-1, free. Econ: 9.06 (9), full democracy.
Updated: 2022 July 16.