Officially: Eesti Vabariik.
English: Estonia.
Seat of government: Tallinn.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The parliament (Riigikogu) is elected through geographical constituencies modified by proportional representation, and chooses the prime minister. The president is chosen by the parliament with a supermajority.
Governing parties: Eesti Reformierakond; Eesti Keskerakond.
Heads of government: Kaja Kallas, ERE, prime minister (since 2021); Kersti Kaljulaid, president (since 2016).
Other parliamentary parties: Eesti Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond; Isamaa; Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond.
Other significant parties: Eesti 200; Erakond Eestimaa Rohelised.
Assessment: The most successful of the Baltics in transitioning. Reformierakond was leading a government under Siim Kallas (2002-3, father of Kaja) with Keskerakond. KE won a plurality of the popular vote in 2003 elections, but tied with the new Res Publica for seats; then-president Arnold Rüütel (2001-6) chose Juhan Parts (2003-5) of Res Publica to form a coalition, and he did so with ERE and Rahvaliit (a precursor to EKRE). Parts lost a vote of confidence in 2005. Rüütel then turned to Andrus Ansip (2005-14) of ERE, who formed a coalition with KE and Rahvaliit. In 2007 elections ERE won a slight edge over KE; Ansip formed a new government with Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit and SDE. In 2009 SDE was removed from the governing coalition; ERE and IRL continued with just under a majority in parliament. In a 2011 parliamentary election, ERE and IRL together won a slight majority of seats; Ansip finally resigned in 2014, replaced by Taavi Rõivas (2014-6) of ERE, who formed a coalition with SDE. Both parties lost seats in the 2015 parliamentary election, and IRL was brought into the government. The new coalition split in 2016, and KE formed a new government under Jüri Ratas (2016-21), with SDE and IRL/Isamaa. ERE finished first in 2019 elections, but was unable to form a government, and Ratas formed a new coalition, bringing in EKRE in defiance of his campaign assurance. Ratas resigned in 2021 following a corruption scandal, and KE agreed to a coalition led by ERE.
FH: 1-1, free. Econ: 7.68 (37), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2021 June 23.