مصر « MASR »
— Also: مصر « Misr ».
— Officially: الجمهورية مصر العربية « ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ Misr ɔal-Carabīaḧ ».
— English: Egypt.
— Seat of government: القاهرة « ɔal-Qāhiraḧ ».
— Status: Not democratic.
— Structure: The government is run by and for the military and its economic interests, and generally highly hierarchical, with the military chief taking the nominally-civilian presidency.
— Governing party: Military.
— Head of government: عبد الفتاح السيسي « Cabd ɔal-Fat:āh ɔal-Sīsī », president; assisted by إبراهيم محلب‎ « Ɔibrāhīm Mahlab », prime minister.
— Opposition parties: إخوان المسلمون « Ɔixŭān ɔul-Muslimūn »حزب الحرية والعدالة « Hizb ɔal-Hur:īaḧ ŭa ɔal-Cadālaḧ; حزب النور « Hizb ɔal-Nūr »; حزب الغد « Hizb ɔal-Ğad », led by أيمن نور « Ɔajman Nūr »; حزب الوفد الجديد « Hizb ɔal-Ŭafd ɔal-Ĝadīd »; حزب التجمع « Hizb ɔal-Taĝam:uc ».
— Assessment: Under military and crypto-military dictatorship since 1952, with the exception of one year (2012-3). Typically repressive; a state of emergency had been in place almost continuously between 1967 and 2012. Elections were nominally held, but they could not have led to anything like liberalism by any outcome, as this was essentially a one-party state, and the strongest opposition, the officially-banned إخوان « Ɔixŭān », was also illiberal in its policies. The ruling حزب الديموقراطية الوطنية « Hizb ɔal-Dīmūqrātīaḧ ɔal-Ŭatanīaḧ » orchestrated an overwhelming victory and then the absorption of many supposedly-independent candidates. The first presidential election in which opposition candidates were allowed to stand, 2005, still featured rules that favored the ruling party; and the election was in any case not democratic. The parliament emerging from 2010 elections had far greater representation for unofficial candidates of the religious-conservative إخوان « Ɔixŭān », but again not to the proper democratic strength, and was marked by fraud. And the military rιgime attacked the liberal opposition, most notably the حزب الغد « Hizb ɔal-Ğad », whose leader أيمن نور « Ɔajman Nūr » was prosecuted on bogus charges and lost his seat in parliament despite being the most popular single politician in the country. The longest-serving ruler, حسنى مبارك « Husnī Mubārak » (1981-2011) was the target of massive protests during the ربيع العربي « Rabīc ɔal-Carabī » (inspired by successful protests in تونس « Tūnis »), and was forced out by the military, which took power as the المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة « ɔal-Maĝlis ɔal-Ɔaclaj lil-Qūāt ɔal-Musal:ahaḧ », under field marshal محمد حسين طنطاوى « Muham:ad Husajn Tantāŭī » (2011-2). The military promised a transition to democracy; it delivered only slowly, while making repeated efforts to protect its power and autonomy in the new permanent constitution. The إخوان « Ɔixŭān »-affiliated حزب الحرية والعدالة « Hizb ɔal-Hur:īaḧ ŭa ɔal-Cadālaḧ won a plurality in 2011-2 parliamentary elections, and its candidate محمد مرسى « Muham:ad Mursī » won the 2012 presidential election; essentially, the إخوان « Ɔixŭān » has won every democratic election. مرسى « Mursī » was overthrown by the military in 2013, and السيسي « ɔal-Sīsī » took control; while the إخوان « Ɔixŭān » had indeed overreached, the real reason for the overthrow was the threat posed to military power, and the real reason for the popular protests in 2013 that were used to justify the overthrow was that those who led the 2011 protests did not anticipate or believe in the popularity of religious conservatism. The إخوان « Ɔixŭān » was brutally repressed after the overthrow; السيسي « Ɔal-Sīsī » held an election for himself in 2014 that was mostly boycotted.
— FH: 6-5, not free. Econ: 4.56 (109), authoritarian.
— Updated: 2014 November 30.
 

O.T. FORD