Also: Gabuuti.
Officially: République de Djibouti; الجمهورية جيبوتى « ɔal-Ĝumhūrīaḧ Ĝībūtī ».
English: Djibouti.
Seat of government: Jabuuti.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Largely-autocratic dominant-party state. In theory, the president is elected directly, while the legislature (Assemblée Nationale) is elected in multi-member geographical constituencies, with equal representation for Soomaali and Qafár.
Governing party: Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle.
Head of government: Ismaaciil Cumar Geele, UMP, president.
Chief opposition party: Union pour le Salut National.
Recent history: Dominated by Soomaali (specifically, Ciise) since independence, and largely by two persons, the previous official leader, Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon (1977-99), and his nephew, the current official president (1999-) and former ruler de facto during the later years of his uncle’s reign. The sole legal party was originally the Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès; it has been folded into the pro-Geele UMP during the multi-party era. In 1991, the Qafár created their own (unrecognized) state in the north under the rebel Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie; this was largely reconquered by 1994, with the main faction of FRUD becoming a political party in Jabuuti, and part of the UMP. The holdout faction settled in 2001. The state is now moving slowly towards democracy; but the 2003 elections, the first for an expanded multi-party system, were claimed by the UMP, which also claimed to have again won a majority in all five constituencies and therefore every seat in parliament. The 2008 elections saw an opposition boycott, and the UMP again took every seat. Legislative elections in 2013, while not democratic, did lead to opposition representation.
FH: 6-5, not free. Econ: 2.74 (147), authoritarian.
Updated: 2014 December 8.