Also: Masiwa; Comores; القمر ɔal-Qamar .
Officially: Udzima wa Komori; Union des Comores; اتحاد القمري Ɔit:ihād ɔal-Qamarī .
English: Comoros.
Seat of government: Moroni.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: Decentralized state. The federal president is directly elected, but from among the top three in a primary election on one of the islands (rotating every electoral cycle). The federal parliament is partially elected in geographical constituencies, and partially chosen by the island governments.
Head of government: Ikililou Dhoinine, federal president.
Assessment: Zone of mixed control. The islands of Ngazidja, Nzwani, and Mwali have strong autonomy, and were effectively independent for several years before the 2001 power-sharing agreement that provided for a rotating presidency; dictator Azali Assoumani (1999-2006) represented Ngazidja, previous president Ahmed Abdallah Sambi (2006-11) represented Nzwani, Dhoinine (2011-) represents Mwali, and the coming president (2016) will represent Ngazidja again. The recent history of the islands has been of military rule and putsches, with Assoumani the most recent example. A standoff between the center and Mohammed Bacar, who headed the government of Nzwani (2001-8) despite his election being disputed by the central government, led to the 2008 invasion of Nzwani by the African Union and the replacement of Bacar.
FH: 3-4, partly free (democratic). Econ: 3.58 (123), authoritarian.
Updated: 2015 March 13.