中國 UŊ5 KUO35
Also: 中国 uŋ5 Kuo35 ; 中華 uŋ5 Xua35 ; 中华 uŋ5 Xua35 .
Officially: 中华人民共和国 uŋ5 Xua35 Ẓən35 Min35 Kuŋ5135 Kuo35 .
English: China.
Seat of government: 北京 Pei214 Ćiŋ5 .
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Authority within the party is based on interpersonal loyalties and factional positioning, represented primarily through the 中央政治局常务委员会 uŋ5 Iaŋ5 əŋ51 r51 Ć35 ‛aŋ35 U51 Uei214 en35 Xuei51 .
Governing party: 中國共產黨 uŋ5 Kuo35 Kuŋ51 ‛an214 Taŋ214 .
Head of government: 習近平 Śi35 Ćin51 P‛iŋ35 , general secretary and president.
Assessment: The worlds most populous state, and unfortunately its most populous tyranny. Operates under a collective rgime, with power residing primarily in interpersonal relationships and loyalties, often directed by senior figures without official title. While 江澤民 Ćiaŋ535 Min35 (officially, 1992-2003) transitioned from public office, making way for nominal general secretary and president 胡錦濤 Xu35 Ćin214 T‛au5 (2002-13), he clearly maintained the leading position unofficially for many years, past the retirement of 胡 Xu35 . He enshrined his own doctrines in customary law, and stacked the ruling 中央政治局常務委員會 uŋ5 Iaŋ5 əŋ51 r51 Ć35 ‛aŋ35 U51 Uei214 en35 Xuei51 with his own faction in two successive five-yearly congresses, notably the influential 曾慶紅 Cəŋ5 Ć‛iŋ51 Xuŋ35 , while 習 Śi35 was positioned as the next official head of government. 習 Śi35 (officially, 2012-) has developed his own power more effectively than 胡 Xu35 ever did, and has apparently consolidated personal control, removing term limits for his official position, and orienting policy around his image.
FH: 7-6, not free. Econ: 3.04 (136), authoritarian. (For 中國 uŋ5 Kuo35 as a whole.) FH: 7-7, not free. (For བོད Bod .)

香港 Hŋ53 Koŋ35
Officially: 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Cuŋ531 Ian53 Man5 Kuŋ1 Uo53 Kuok353 Koŋ35 Tak1 Pit1 Haŋ31 Ciŋ3 K5 .
English: Hong Kong.
Status: Not democratic.
Governing party: 中國共產黨 uŋ5 Kuo35 Kuŋ51 ‛an214 Taŋ214 .
Head of government: 李家超 Lei135 Ciu5 , chief executive (since 2022).
Chief opposition parties: 香港民主黨 Hŋ53 Koŋ35 Man5 C35 Toŋ35 , led by Emily 劉慧卿 Lau3 Uai3 Hiŋ3 ; 公民黨 Kuŋ5 Man5 Toŋ35, led by Alan 梁家傑 Lŋ553 Kit3.
Assessment: 香港 Hŋ53 Koŋ35 has been governed under the principle of 一國兩制 Iat5 Kuok313 Cai3 ; there has been a greater deal of liberalism and participatory government, but the 中共 uŋ5 Kuŋ51 still has control, and is exercising that control to an ever-greater degree. Chief executive Donald 曾蔭權 Caŋ53 Iam35 K‛n3 (2005-12) suggested that by 2017, voters might be allowed to choose the chief executive from among several approved candidates; a fully-elected Legislative Council would be implemented no earlier than 2020. A LegCo election in 2008 produced a slightly-reduced majority for democrats in the elected half of the seats, but still a blocking minority, as several key figures retired; results in 2012 were similar, with a consolidation in the two main camps. 梁振英 Lŋ21 Can35 (2012-7) became chief executive in 2012. In 2014, after the 中共 uŋ5 Kuŋ51 made clear that it would not permit the free election of the chief executive, a series of peaceful protests began, known as 佔領中環 Cim3 Liŋ13 Cuŋ5 Uān21 or the 雨傘運動 I13 Sān3 Uan2 Tuŋ2 . 林鄭月娥 Lam21 Ceŋ2 t2 Ŋo21 (2017-22), previously the chief secretary of the administration, took over as chief executive in 2017. Her term saw a cycle of increasing control from 北京 Pei214 Ćiŋ5 followed by increasing protests against this control. In 2019, the administration introduced an extradition bill that would have increased 北京 Pei214 Ćiŋ5 s ability to arrest people in 香港 Hŋ53 Koŋ35 ; after massive protests, the bill was withdrawn. Democrats won a sweeping victory in district elections that fall. In 2020, 北京 Pei214 Ćiŋ5 decided to force a national security law on 香港 Hŋ53 Koŋ35 ; this led to further protests, and the administration then began interfering in the LegCo and the forthcoming election in various ways, prompting the resignation of the pro-democracy legislators, and in 2021 北京 Pei214 Ćiŋ5 drastically reduced the elected component of LegCo. The human rights situation has steadily deteriorated.
FH: 5-2, partly free. Econ: 5.85 (84), hybrid.
Updated: 2022 July 17.