ဗမာ BAMĀ
Also: မြန်မာ Mranmā .
Officially: ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌ Prat‛ōŋcu Sammata Mranmā Nuiŋŋt .
English: Burma; Myanmar.
Seat of government: နေပြည်တော် Nepratoŭ .
Status: Semi-democratic.
Structure: The parliament comprises a House of Representatives (ပြည်သူ့ လွှတ်တော် Prasū Hlŭattoŭ ) and a House of Nationalities (အမျိုးသားလွှတ်တော် Amuisā Hlŭattoŭ ), with both houses elected in geographical constituencies (three quarters) and chosen by the military (one quarter). The president is chosen by an electoral college, reflecting various election results but also stacked with military appointees.
Governing parties: အမျိုးသားဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ် Amuisā-Dīmuikarecī-Ap‛k‛up ; the military (တပ်မတော် Tapmatoŭ ) and its ပြည်ထောင်စုကြံ့ခိုင်ရေးနှင့်ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးပါတီ Prat‛ōŋcu-Krk‛uiŋ-Re-Hnaŋ-P‛ŭp‛rui-Re-Pātī .
Heads of government: အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည် Oŋ C‛an: Cu Kra , head of chief governing party, state counsellor, and foreign minister; မင်းအောင်လှိုင် Maŋ ’Oŋ Hliŋ , commander of the military; ထင်ကျော် T‛aŋ Kjoŭ , president.
Recent history: Autocrat နေဝင်း Ne Ŭaŋ (1958-60, 1962-88 or later), who ran a military-driven one-party state, officially resigned in 1988 July amid a series of pro-democracy and economic protests, identified especially with a main protest on August 8 (၈၈၈၈ အရေးအခင်း 8888 Are-Ak‛aŋ ). The military took power directly in September and ruled as the နိုင်ငံတော်ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှုတည်ဆောက်ရေးကောင်စီ Nuiŋŋat-Ŋrim-Ŭappiprāmhu-Tacok-Re-Koŋcī (later နိုင်ငံတော်အေးချမ်းသာယာရေးနှင့်ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးကောင်စီ Nuiŋŋat-’Ek‛jama-Sājā-Re-Nhaŋ-P‛ŭp‛rui-Re-Koŋcī ). In 1990, the rgime held an election; the အမျိုးသားဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ် Amuisā-Dīmuikarecī-Ap‛k‛up won a sweeping victory, but was never allowed to govern. သန်းရွှေ San Hrŭe , chair of the Council from 1992, gained increasing control of the state. While some in the Council held secret negotiations with NLD leader စု Cu , and the state cracked down on corruption in the military and on the family of နေဝင်း Ne Ŭaŋ , the state also cracked down on the NLD, repeatedly detaining စု Cu and many other NLD activists. Prime minister ခင်ညွန့် K‛aŋ ŭan (2003-4), a relative reformer, was removed in a power struggle with သန်းရွှေ San Hrŭe . In 2007, ordinary citizens, monks, and democrats demonstrated for weeks in large numbers, finally repressed by the military. Later changes in rgime policy have brought some hope for eventual transition to democracy, with opposition members, including စု Cu , allowed into parliament after 2012 by-elections (winning all but one contested seat). Military prime minister သိန်းစိန် Sin Cin (2007-11) was elevated to the nominal presidency (2011-6) under သန်းရွှေ San Hrŭe , and oversaw the transition to the new system. Under that system, three-quarters of parliament was elected in 2015, leading to a near-sweep by the အမျိုးသားဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ် Amuisā-Dīmuikarecī-Ap‛k‛up ; but the military specifically excluded စု Cu from the presidency, so she took power through an office created for her.
FH: 7-7, not free. Econ: 1.77 (163), authoritarian.
Updated: 2016 October 7.
 

O.T. FORD