AZAWAD
Officially: Independent State of Azawad.
Seat of government: Kidal.
Status: Not democratic.
Structure: Hierarchical rebel command.
Governing party: Tankra n Tumast d Aslalu n Azawd.
Head of government: Bilal Ag Acherif, secretary general and state council president; Mahmoud Ag Aghaly, political bureau president; Mohamed Ag Najem, military chief of staff.
Assessment: In early 2012, the TTAA began the latest Tamajaq rebellion. A few months later, a coup in Mali overthrew the democratic government shortly before a scheduled election and transfer of power, in responsed to a perceived lack of support against the TTAA. The TTAA then proceeded to take over much of the north of Mali, including the non-Tamajaq-speaking cities of Gao and Timbuktu, partially in conjunction with religious extremist organizations, أنصار الدين Ɔansār ɔal-Dīn and جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا Ĝamācaḧ ɔal-Taŭhīd ŭaɔl-Ĝihād fī Ğarb Ɔafrīqīaḧ . As the TTAA wanted a limited, nationalist, separatist state, and the other groups wanted a universalizing, religious-extremist rebellion in the entire region, the two sides fell out, and eventually the TTAA was marginalized by the other two. France swiftly intervened against the extremist groups; Mali was soon left in complete control of most of the recognized north Mali, with shared control agreed for the Kidal region. In 2014, after disagreements about the implementation of that agreement, the forces of Mali were driven out of Kidal.
Updated: 2014 December 3.
 

O.T. FORD