Officially: República Argentina.
Seat of government: Buenos Aires.
Status: Democratic.
Structure: The president is elected directly. The legislature (Congreso) comprises the Cámara de Diputados, elected in the provinces, modified by proportional representation, and the Senado, elected by party in the provinces with each represented equally.
Governing party: Frente de Todos.
Heads of government: Alberto Fernández, president (since 2019); Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, vice president (since 2019).
Chief opposition party: Juntos por el Cambio (Cambiemos).
Assessment: Democratic but unstable, particularly in economic matters. The latest period of Peronista (Partido Justicialista) dominance, led by the Kirchners, at least ended notorious volatility at the presidential level. The 2003 presidential election would have required a runoff between two Peronistas, but former president Carlos Ménem (1989-99), trailing badly in polls, withdrew, and Néstor Kirchner became president (2003-7). He took a strong stand against the former military régime and its Guerra Sucia, arresting tens of officers for trial, and successfully pressing Congress for an end to their amnesty. In 2005 congressional elections, Kirchner’s supporters won a plurality in the lower house and a majority in the upper house. In 2007, Kirchner’s wife, Cristina Fernández (2007-15), was elected to succeed him. Kirchner died in 2010; Fernández was reelected in a first-round victory in 2011. While claims to the Falkland Islands are a constant in domestic politics, Fernández fetishized the claim. In 2015, the Peronista reign finally ended, with Mauricio Macri (2015-9) defeating Daniel Scioli of the PJ in a runoff. The Kirchners’ Frente para la Victoria, however, still won a majority in both houses of Congress. Elections in 2019 saw the Peronistas return to office, while their Frente de Todos finished with a legislative plurality.
FH: 2-2, free. Econ: 6.63 (56), flawed democracy.
Updated: 2021 June 18.