افغانستان « ƆAFĞĀNISTĀN »
— Officially: د افغانستان اسلامى جمهوريت « Da Ɔafğānistān Ɔislāmī Ĝumhūrīat »; جمهورى اسلامى افغانستان « Ĝumhūrī-e Ɔislāmī-e Ɔafğānistān ».
— English: Afghanistan.
— Seat of government: کابل « Kābul ».
— Status: Not democratic.
— Structure: Semi-democracy; the co-heads of government were the main contestants in the last presidential election. In theory, the president is elected directly. Parliament (ملی شورا « Mil:ī Šūrā) comprises the ولسى جرګه « Ŭolesī Ĝirgah », elected by geographical constituencies with seats reserved for women and an at-large election for nomadic seats, and the مشرانو جرګه « Mešerānoŭ Ĝirgah », chosen by local governments and the president.
— Heads of government: اشرف غني احمدزی‎ « Ɔašraf Ğanī Ɔahmadzaī », president; عبدالله « Cabdɔullah », chief executive.
— Assessment: Still struggling to build a stable democracy after the 2001 NATO invasion. Much of پښتونستان « Patūnestān » is still under the control of the طالبان « Tālibān ». The central government has spent much of the post-invasion period contesting control over the armed forces, revenue, and even territory with local warlords, notably اسماعيل خان « Əismācīl Xān »هرات (« Herāt »), عبد الرشيد دستم « Cabd ɔel-Rašīd Dostum » (مزار شريف « Mazār-e Šarīf »), گلبدين حکمتيار « Gulbud:īn Hekmatjār » (زابل « Zābol »), گول آقا شيرزاى « Gūl Ɔāqā Šīrzāī » (قندهار « Qandahār »), and حضرت على « Hadrat Calī » (لغمان-ننگرهار-کنرها « Lağmān-Nangarhār-Kunarhā »), all of whom effectively ran their own states. The withdrawal (for the most part) of NATO forces, who had been primarily responsible for the extension of control outside of کابل « Kābul », leaves the government severely weakened. A لوى جرګه « Loŭja Ĝirgah » originally chose حامد کرزی « Hāmid Karzaī » (2001-14) as president for eighteen months, then drafted a new constitution, calling for a strong presidential state. A presidential election in 2004 produced, despite irregularities, a clear mandate for کرزی « Karzaī », defeating يونس قانونی « Jūnis Qānūnī », a پنجشيری « Panĝšīrī » who emerged as the key opposition leader. Parliamentary elections were held as well, producing a conservative assembly. Elections held in 2009 for the presidency were patently rigged, mostly to favor کرزی « Karzaī »; runner-up عبدالله « Cabdɔullah » (also a پنجشيری « Panĝšīrī ») withdrew from the runoff, expecting it to be rigged as well, and کرزی « Karzaī » was declared reelected. An election in 2014 to replace کرزی « Karzaī » went to a runoff between عبدالله « Cabdɔullah » and غني « Ğanī »; with غني « Ğanī » about to be named as the official winner with charges of fraud from عبدالله « Cabdɔullah », a deal was reached to let عبدالله « Cabdɔullah » name a chief executive to serve alongside غني « Ğanī ».
— FH: 5-6, not free. Econ: 3.02 (138), authoritarian. (For افغانستان « Ɔafğānistān » as a whole.)
— Updated: 2014 March 16.
 

O.T. FORD