the assumption of responsibility for the welfare of the world












Updated 2020 March 3


This reference base is a work of analytical description, of the world and various topics within it. While it attempts to provide some of the basic structure for understanding the world, there is a particular focus on correcting common misinformation or misconceptions. Thus, seemingly-random topics are included or discussed in detail not because they are more important, but because they are not covered elsewhere, or are covered misleadingly.

Two contrasts are important for understanding this work and its motivations. The first is the contrast between the empirical, based on observation of fact, and the conventional, based on agreement (see conventionality). The second is the contrast between term and concept. Terms can have multiple meanings; concepts can be represented by more than one term. Concepts are more important in understanding the world, but we can only discuss concepts in terms, so it is necessary to choose the terms that most accurately represent the concepts in question, and, where no terms do so accurately, to define technical terms carefully to represent those concepts, and then to use them consistently.

Definitions and descriptions are meant to be precise and in reference only to what is also precise, or to clearly-marked postulates. Imprecision and subjectivity that may appear is generally inherent; for example, a ‘lake’ is a “large” body of water because the term ‘lake’ is inherently as imprecise and subjective as the term ‘large’.


Entries in bold have detailed, separate articles. Entries in italics define technical terms, being given a specific meaning in the reference base to represent important concepts with no consistent terminology.

beg the question
change spectrum
climate change
continental divide
drainage basin
drainage path
ethnic cleansing
global warming
Great Basin
greenhouse effect
Hong Kong
Immaculate Conception
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Kansas City
lowest common denominator
material realm
mutual intelligibility
New World
New York
North Africa
North America
North China Plain
Northeast Corridor
Old World
ozone depletion
perceptual realm
property spectrum
Quad Cities
Rhode Island
rhoticity in English
Salish Sea
settlement basin
settler society
sex and gender
surface water
Uttar Pradesh
West Africa
world region



Abidjan — the main city and seat of government of Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire). The seat of government (or “capital”) is usually said to be Yamoussoukro, but few government institutions are based there.

Abyssiniaሐበሻ « Habäša » — a cultural nation of East Africa, speaking the Ethiopian Semitic dialects, and the region inhabited by that nation. The Abyssinian dialects are Amharic (አማርኛ « Ɔämarəña »), Tigrinya (ትግርኛ « Təgərəña »), and Tigré (ትግራይት « Təgərajətə »). The Abyssinians were the dominant people of the Ethiopian empire, and are now the dominant people of its successor states of Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ « Ɔitəjopija ») and Eritrea (ኤርትራ « Ɔerətəra »). They share a unique script, Fidel (ፊደል « Fidälə »), and traditionally practice a distinctive form of Eastern Christianity.

Africa — originally, a cultural-ethnic region on the central coast of the southern Mediterranean, AFRICA (home of the nation known to the Romans as AFRI). By extension, the entire coast of the southern Mediterranean; by further extension, the entire region of the Old World south of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, and one of the conventional continents.

AlbaniaShqipëria — a cultural region (depicted at right) and nation in the western Balkan peninsula, whose people speak the Indo-European dialect of Albanian (Shqip), which is its own branch of the family. Albanians are among the few Europeans peoples who are predominantly Muslim. The main city is Tirana (Tiranë). By extension, ‘Albania’ is also a state dominated by this people, though the people dominates another state, Kosovo (Kosova), and is a major presence in North Macedonia as well. The use of ‘Albania’ only for one state comes from a time before Kosovo’s independence. For the state: Albania.

America — The main landmass of the Western Hemisphere, or that landmass and all the smaller adjacent and internal landmasses; the New World. ‘America’ is also used for the United States; this usage was originally simply to distinguish between the English in Britain and the English in the New World, reinforced by the official name ‘United States of America’ and by the fact that ‘America’ is a name more traditional for a country. For the US: United States.

anarchy — the absence of rule; a state (condition) in which there are no rulers (from Greek ΑΝΑΡΧΙΑ « anark‛ia »: Α(Ν)-, “not” + ΑΡΧ-, “rule”). Anarchy is not the same as chaos; and the application of the term ‘anarchy’ to a state of mob rule is perverse, since mob rule is not only by definition a form of rule, but also generally an extreme, violent form. Anarchists, advocates of anarchy, are typically proposing a system free from all coercion, rather than a system in which coercion is merely practiced at a lower level. For more: government.

Aryansआर्य « Ārja » — an Indo-European people speaking an Indo-Iranian dialect, Sanskrit (संस्कृतम् « Sãskŗtam »), who entered India around four thousand years ago, thereafter known as the Indo-Aryans. The Indo-Aryans are the dominant people of broader India today (especially the Indo-Gangetic Plain), speaking the Indic dialects, descended from Sanskrit. The adoption of the term ‘Aryan’ by the Nazis was ahistorical.

Asia — originally, ΑΣΙΑ « Asia », the land to the east from the perspective of the ancient Greeks, thus lying east of the Aegean Sea, generally confined to western Anatolia. By a process of continuous extension, now applied to the entire region of the Old World east of Europe and Africa, and thus the largest of the conventional continents.

Australasia — any region of the eastern and southern hemispheres that includes the landmass of Australia but is not limited to it, or to the state of Australia (which also includes Tasmania). New Zealand is the most common inclusion; Australia and New Zealand are large, industrialized English settler societies isolated from the rest of the industrialized world. In ecology, Australasia is the ecorealm south and east of the Wallace Line, which cuts through the East Indies and separates Australasia from the Indo-Malay ecorealm.

authoritarian — believing strongly in authority, or in the need to obey authority, or advocating obedience to authority. Compare: totalitarian. Authoritarianism can be both a personality trait and a political ideology, often but not always overlapping; an authoritarian personality can be either one who follows authority or one who demands obedience as an authority.

AzerbaijanAzərbaycan — a cultural region and nation on the west shore of the Caspian Sea, speaking a Turkic dialect, Azeri (Azəri Dili). Northern Azerbaijan, controlled by the Russian Empire, eventually became independent in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and is generally called simply ‘Azerbaijan’; southern Azerbaijan lies within the state of Iran. The main city is Baku (Bakı). The Armenian-inhabited Nagorno-Karabakh (Արցախ « Arc‛ax ») is no longer part of the state, but it remains conventionally a part of the country. ‘Azerbaijan’ is a transliteration from an earlier Cyrillic script (Азәрбайҹан « Azərbaĭžan »); the ‘J’ is meant to be pronounced as in English, [dʒ]. The modern Latin spelling is based on Turkish orthography, and is pronounced the same. For the independent state: (Northern) Azerbaijan.

Bahrainالبحرين « ɔal-Bahrajn » — a historical region (meaning “two seas”) along the east coast of the Arabian peninsula, inhabited primarily by Shiite Arabs. The name has more recently been confined to a landmass within that region, originally called ‘Awal’ (أوال « Ɔaŭāl »), and the state based on that landmass. No compensating term for the historical region has emerged. For the state: Bahrain.

Bangladeshবাংলাদেশ « Bā~lādēś » — a cultural region (meaning “country of Bengali”) where the Indic dialect of Bengali (বাংলা « Bā~lā ») is spoken, on the Bay of Bengal at the eastern end of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and the location of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta; equivalent to all of historical Bengal. The primary cities are Dhaka (ধাক « D‛āka ») and Calcutta (কলকাতা « Kalkātā »). With the independence of East Pakistan in 1971, the name is now used by and mostly about the state, in historical eastern Bangladesh. For the state: (East) Bangladesh.

Bantu — a branch of the Niger-Congo language family, forming a single dialect continuum covering most of the population of Sub-Saharan Africa outside of West Africa and the Horn of Africa. Conventionally divided, based on identity and historical affiliation, into hundreds of “languages”, but most of these dialects can be grouped with several others based on mutual intelligibility (for example, Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, and Matabele; Sotho, Tswana, Pedi, and Lozi; Nyoro, Toro, Ankole, and Chiga). The name ‘Bantu’ was an original reconstructed form for the word meaning “people” in the parent dialect (now given as *‘bantò’).

beg the question — assume the thing one is trying to prove; use an idea to prove itself; make a circular argument. The reinterpretation of this expression in vernacular usage, based on its apparent meaning, is “demand the question be asked”, generally followed by a specific question, but the expression retains its technical meaning in logic.

Benin — a city of West Africa; by extension, the pre-colonial state ruled from this city, an enterprise of the Edo people. The name ‘Benin’ was later adopted by a post-colonial state (and hence country) nearby with no relation to the original. For the later state: (New) Bénin.

biome — a type of ecosystem; a generalization of biotic composition, climate, and physical features. Biomes can be more or less specific: forest; rainforest; tropical rainforest.

Brandenburg — a city of Germany, located on the Havel River west of Berlin. By extension, any of the historical states governed from Brandenburg, or descended from one that had been (as government shifted to Potsdam or Berlin), or the territory around Brandenburg regardless of organization. The last of the states became a subordinate state (Land) in the modern state of Germany, restored as a federal Land following the incorporation of East Germany; it surrounds but does not include Berlin.

bug — a very small animal visible to the unaided eye, typically excluding marine animals and sometimes excluding animals belonging to other recognizable vernacular classes, such as spiders. Biologists have appropriated the term ‘bug’ for the insect clade Hemiptera, thus known to them as “true” bugs; but there is no historical basis for this distinction.

Bushman — a culture and group of dialects in southwestern Africa, or an individual within that culture. The dialects are noted for the variety of click consonants, some of which have been adopted by the nearby, unrelated Bantu dialects. The term ‘San’ has been used for this culture by some, on the belief that ‘Bushman’ is colonial and sexist; but ‘San’ is in fact a highly-derogatory term, and, as there is no single native term for the dialects collectively, ‘Bushman’ is preferred by the speakers when referring to themselves in English.

California — the central region of the west coast of North America, including the peninsula of Baja California. By extension, the US state occupying the northern half of this region (historically, Alta California).

cement — a substance used to bind other substances (compare the phrases ‘rubber cement’, ‘cement in place’). The term ‘cement’ is often used for concrete, of which cement is one component.

change spectrum — a continuum of political positioning and tendency based on the question of change relative to the existing conditions of a given society, with liberals favoring change, conservatives opposing change, and other positions more or less extreme. Because these are positions relative to existing conditions, there is no fixed ideological content outside of social context. There are no universal conservative or liberal policies, though there may be universal conservative and liberal mindsets.
In this scheme, radicals favor drastic change, and reactionaries favor undoing change that has already taken place. Moderates neither favor nor oppose change. Progressives, where the term is distinct, favor a greater degree of change than liberals. The term ‘progressive’ is also, though, used as a synonym (or euphemism) for ‘liberal’, increasingly so in the United States, where ‘liberal’ (dating to 1988 or shortly thereafter) has been used as an attack by conservatives while not adequately defended by liberals themselves. The change spectrum as displayed above corresponds with the traditional left-right nomenclature, with the moderates as the center, radicals the far left, reactionaries the far right (taken from a historic seating pattern in the French parliament). Compare property spectrum.

China中國 / 中国 « Çuŋ5 Kuo35 » / 中華 / 中华 « Çuŋ5 Xua35 » — a cultural nation defined by the Sinitic dialects (a main branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family), and the region (depicted at right, in blue) inhabited by that nation. By extension, the primary state controlled or predominantly populated by that nation, at various points in history, including during those periods when the ruling dynasty was not culturally or ethnically Chinese. For the state (outlined at right): China.

clade — a group, typically of organisms, descended from a common ancestor (from Greek ΚΛΑΔΟΣ « klados », “branch”). The term ‘clade’ is meant to replace the various hierarchical categories (taxa) of traditional biology — kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species — and is used for two reasons: first, the hierarchy implies equivalence among the “classes” or “families” (et cetera) of different lines, suggesting equivalent diversity and equivalent evolutionary distance; second, the hierarchical system is inflexible, and as new relationships have been proposed, the hierarchies are often incompatible with the new relationships (for example, birds and reptiles were both traditionally recognized as “classes”; when birds were later recognized as dinosaurs, themselves a subset of reptiles, that left one class as sub-subgroup of another class, a hierarchical impossibility). Cladistics is the study of clades and the methods of their identification.

climate — medium- to long-term, year-on-year conditions of sunlight, temperature, pressure, humidity, and precipitation. Climate allows for seasonal variation, and is stable if the conditions are comparable at comparable times of year. Climate is distinct from weather.

climate change — in a modern environmental context, the broad changes in climate resulting from global warming, itself the result of the anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse effect. The increased energy input into the Earth’s climate systems, in which water and air transfer energy from warmer to cooler areas, has complicated effects; global-scale warming can lead to local cooling, among other things, as well as changes in storm frequency and intensity. The expression ‘climate change’ is meant to capture these other effects, since global warming is not experienced as a universal increase in temperature.

Colomboකොළඹ « Kolamba » — the main city and seat of government of Sri Lanka. The seat of government (or “capital”) is usually given as Sri Jayewardenapura-Kotte (කෝට්ටේ « Kōttē »; ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ « Śrī Jajavard‛anapura Kōttē »), but Kotte is a suburb of Colombo and in any case houses very little of the government.

Colorado — a drainage path (Spanish, “reddish”) in western central North America, draining into the Gulf of California. The name was later applied to a US territory and subsequent state in the Colorado drainage basin, but not along what was then the nominal Colorado River, which began downstream from the Green River; the ‘Colorado River’ name was later extended upstream from the Green River confluence, along what had been the Grand River, which passed through the state of Colorado (hence, ‘Grand Junction’).

communism — originally, an economic system without private property (from the French ‘commun’, meaning “common”), and thus the theory and movement that rejected private property. The later work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels came to redefine the theory and movement; later still, the ideologies and governing practices of the Russian and Chinese revolutionary self-described “Communists” became the defining reference, particularly in opposition, despite dramatic distance from the original.

concrete — a hard, durable composite material, used in construction since Roman times, consisting of small pieces of rock (in this context, the aggregate) mixed together with wet cement, which hardens upon drying. Concrete is often called “cement”.

conformitarian — promoting or supporting conformity as a social policy; expecting or enforcing conformity within society in one or more ways. A conformist is someone who conforms; a conformitarian is one who expects others to conform.

conservatism — preference for the preservation of the status quo (see change spectrum). By extension, any ideology which, relative to its society, represents the status quo.

continent — a large conventional division of the world, partially (but only partially) based on landmasses. There are several versions of the continental model; in the United States, seven continents are recognized (as depicted at right): North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. All versions, however, make an arbitrary distinction between continents (large) and islands (not large).

continental divide — a watershed on any large landmass separating the drainage of opposite sides of the landmass, particularly of different named “oceans”. For example, the main continental divide in North America, the Great Divide, separates water that flows into the Atlantic from water that flows into the Pacific. For more: surface water.

cosmology — the study of how the universe works, or any system for describing or explaining how the universe works (from Greek ΚΟΣΜ- « kosm- », “orderly whole, universe” + ΛΟΓ- « log- », “reasoned account”). Cosmology is one of the two key features of most religions. Recently ‘cosmology’ has been appropriated by a narrow subfield of physics dealing with the origins and broader structure of the material realm.

CyprusΚύπρος « Kupros » (Greek); Kıbrıs (Turkish) — a landmass in the eastern Mediterranean, just south of the Anatolian peninsula. Long inhabited by two main peoples, Greeks and Turks. Treated as a single country, but contains two states, since a 1973 Greek-Cypriot coup and Turkish intervention. The coup had been intended to unite Cyprus with Greece, ruled at that time by a military dictatorship. The main city is Nicosia (Λευκωσία « Leukōsia » / Lefkoşa), divided between the two states. For the modern states: Greek Cyprus; Turkish Cyprus.

Delhiदिल्ली « Dillī » — a major city in India and its historical seat of government, as well as the current seat of the Indian Republic. The current seat of government (or “capital”) is usually given as New Delhi (नई दिल्ली « Naī Dillī »), but this is merely a part of the same larger city.

dialect — any variety of speech, whether conventionally called “a language” or “a dialect”. For more: language.

doabदोआब « dōāb » (Hindi); دوآب « doŭɔāb » (Urdu) — in India, a region lying between two confluent waterways (from Persian دوآب « doŭɔāb », “two rivers”). By extension, the most important of these, lying between the Ganges (गंगा « Gãgā ») and Yamuna (यमुना « Jamunā ») Rivers, is the Doab (दोआब « Dōāb »).

DonbassДонбасс « Donbass » — a region in eastern Europe, near the Donets River (Донец « Donec »). The region is a coal basin — that is, a continuous underground deposit of coal (in full, the Донецкий Каменноугольный Бассейн « Doneckiĭ Kamennougolĵnyĭ Basseĭn »). The coal basin is named after the river, but its extent is unrelated to the drainage basin of the river. The presence of coal made the Donbass an important industrial area. The main city is Donetsk (Донецк « Doneck »). Though generally included in conventional Ukraine, the population speaks mostly Russian, and much of it has been independent of Ukraine since 2014. For the unrecognized states in the Donbass: Donetsk; Lugansk.

drainage basin — an area from which surface water flows into a particular drainage path or settlement basin. In modern usage, this is generally called a ‘watershed’, which originally referred to the elevated border of a drainage basin. For more: surface water.

drainage path — any route followed by surface water as it flows downhill. The terms ‘river’, ‘stream’, ‘creek’, ‘ravine’, ‘waterway’, and in certain contexts ‘valley’, ‘canal’, and ‘channel’ all describe drainage paths. For more: surface water.

economic — pertaining to products in a system of value and utility. Though variously described, economics is simply the study of products.

ecorealm — a large region of species relatedness, in which species are more closely related to each other, despite superficial differences, than they are to species of other ecorealms, despite superficial similarities. Trees, for example, evolved independently (through parallel evolution) to fill ecological niches in different parts of the world; trees are more closely related to the other plants in their ecorealms than they are to trees in other ecorealms. Ecorealms can be identified for animals alone or plants alone, but also for plants and animals combined. The usual ecorealms for plants and animals combined are Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Indo-Malay, Australasian, Oceanic, and Antarctic.

ecosystem — a specific region defined by the extent of one or more biological or environmental features in a particular location, within which the organisms, climate, and physical features are understood to interact systematically and, for the organisms, symbiotically. Ecosystems are identified heuristically; any given location could be a part of multiple ecosystems, depending on how they were defined and for what purposes they were identified. A common feature used to define an ecosystem is the dominant organism, especially a plant, thus forests and grasslands are broad types of ecosystems (or biomes), while specific forests (the Amazon and Congo rainforests) and grasslands (the Great Plains, the steppe) are ecosystems. Ecosystems can be defined broadly or narrowly, such that a narrowly-defined ecosystem can exist within a broadly-defined ecosystem.

empirical — based on observation of fact, in contrast to the conventional. For more: conventionality.

endorse — speak well of; attest to the virtues of; support. In modern US political discourse, “endorsement” is usually treated as a performative statement in which a well-known person publicly declares exclusive support for a candidate, campaign, or product.

ethnic cleansing — the process of changing the demographic composition of an area by removing a particular ethnic group, whether through relocation (forcible or otherwise) or mass murder. Often used erroneously as a synonym for genocide or mass murder.

Europe — a region of the Old World, lying north of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, generally taken to extend as far east as the Ural Mountains and Ural River, and a part of the continental model. By extension, two smaller regions: a world region occupying much (but not all) of traditional Europe, notably excluding European Russia; and a political region, the European Union, which is itself a partially-defining feature of the world region.

faith — belief without evidence. Whereas ‘superstition’ is commonly a derogatory, ‘faith’ is embraced by its practioners. And though the idea of belief without evidence is defended, at the same time its implications, like irrationality, are denied. (‘Faith’ has other, related meanings; as in the expression ‘keep faith’, it can mean “trust”, and as a discrete noun, as in ‘a faith’, it is used as a synonym for ‘religion’.)

gender — originally, the biological category of sex. By extension, a grammatical category of nouns based on the sex of animals, and denoted as ‘feminine’ and ‘masculine’, but applied to non-sexual things as well, and sometimes including a neuter gender. In recent decades, among a small Anglophone subculture, the term ‘gender’ has been restricted to human social categories originally based on sex, so that “female” and “male” humans are those who identify with traditionally-female and -male social roles or behavior, respectively. This restricted sense has not spread to the majority of English speakers. For more: sex and gender.

genocide — the elimination or attempted elimination of a kind of people, with the intention that it should no longer exist. Genocide can be done through mass murder, but forced or planned assimilation is also a form of genocide. Distinct from both mass murder and ethnic cleansing, as well as accidental mass death.

GermanyDeutschland — a cultural region in Europe inhabited by speakers of Germanic dialects, particularly of the West Germanic dialect continuum, or the nation of those speakers. By extension, a state dominated by that nation, even if representing only part of the nation, such as the modern Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland). Austrians and German-speaking Swiss are, in historical terms, also Germans.

Ghana — a historical state of the West African Sahel, probably based on the Soninke nation. The name ‘Ghana’ was later adopted by a post-colonial state with no historic ties to Ghana, an area of West Africa previously known as the Gold Coast, and dominated by the Akan. For that later state: (New) Ghana.

Gibraltar — a mountain ridge on a small peninsula on the southern coast of Iberia (from Arabic جبل طارق « Ĝabal Tāriq », “mountain of Tariq”), now generally known as ‘the Rock of Gibraltar’. By extension, the city at the base of the ridge, and the political division of Britain based on the peninsula.

global warming — an increase in global average temperature; in a modern environmental context, it refers to the warming caused by the human aggravation of the greenhouse effect. Because the Earth is not heated evenly by the sun, and because its water and air systems serve to transfer energy from one part of the Earth to another, an increase in general heat affects climate systems throughout the world, thus leading to broader climate change. Global warming is different from ozone depletion.

god — a force or being posited as an explanation for a natural phenomenon not otherwise explained in a given cosmology. While many gods are anthropomorphized, this is not an essential characteristic. Even less essential are the various characteristics of the monotheistic god of Judaism, and Christianity and Islam by extension — a personal god who created and governs the universe, and is omniscient and omnipotent.

grass — a plant of the family Poaceae, known for intermediate height and ground-level growth, and the dominant plant of certain ecosystems (grasslands) throughout the world. The primary staple grains of the human diet since the development of agriculture — rice, wheat, maize, millet, rye, oats, barley — are all grasses.

Great Basin — a region in North America where surface water drains not into the ocean but internally. The largest settlement basin in the Great Basin is the Great Salt Lake. By extension, the term ‘Great Basin’ is applied to an ecological region and a cultural region in approximately the same location, but with different extents.

greenhouse effect — a natural process by which atmospheric gasses — principally carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), water (H2O), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3) — trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. This happens because electromagnetic radiation from the sun enters the atmosphere in a relatively short wavelength, primarily visible light, and heats the Earth, which then radiates energy at a longer wavelength, infrared, which is more likely to be reflected by the greenhouse gasses. The greenhouse effect is normal, and necessary to life, as it allows the planet to warm to the point where it becomes habitable. The problem lies with the increase in greenhouse gasses caused by humans, through burning fossil fuels and deforestation (CO2) and agriculture (CH4), thus leading to anthropogenic (human-caused) global warming.

Guiana — a coastal region of South America, extending as far inland as the watershed of the Amazon drainage basin (thus including all coastal drainage). It was divided in colonial times; the segments were thus known individually as Spanish, British, Dutch, French, and Portuguese Guiana (in order, west to east). Spanish Guiana is part of the post-colonial state of Venezuela, Portuguese Guiana part of the post-colonial state of Brazil, and French Guiana still retained by France; but British Guiana (Guyana) and Dutch Guiana (Suriname) are independent.

Guinea — the entire coastal region of West Africa, extending at least as far as the equator. The name ‘Guinea’ is used in that of several post-colonial states, and often by itself for just one of them, the former French colony governed from Conakry. For that state: Guinea-Conakry.

HawaiiHawai‘i — a landmass in the central Pacific Ocean, now generally called ‘the Island of Hawaii’ or, locally, ‘the Big Island’. By extension, the group of landmasses extending to its northwest, and by further extension any of the political units based on this archipelago, including an independent state, and now a state of the United States. The name ‘Hawai‘i’ descends from the native name for the Polynesian homeland, reconstructed as *Sawaiki.

Hijazالحجاز « ɔal-Hiĝāz » — the central western coastal region of the Arabian peninsula, and the location of Mecca (مكة « Mak:aḧ ») and Medina (مدينة « Madīnaḧ »). The largest city is Jeddah (جدة « Ĝid:aḧ »). As the home of Muhammad (محمد ابن عبدالله ابن عبد المطلب « Muham:ad ɔibn Cabdɔullah ɔibn Cabd ɔul-Mut:alib »), the Hijaz is the central region of Islam.

Hong Kong香港 « Höŋ53 Koŋ35 » — a harbor (meaning “fragrant harbor”) on a small landmass in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China, known in English as Aberdeen Harbor. By extension, the entire landmass, the city centered on that landmass, or the administrative region of the Chinese state based on that city.

Iberia — a peninsula in Europe (from Latin HIBERVS or IBERVS, “Ebro River”), separated from the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees. By extension, a cultural subregion of the Romance world with the same extent, whose Spanish and Portuguese components have been spread globally, particularly to the New World. An identical Latin name ‘IBERIA’, but with a different etymology, was also applied in ancient times to various regions in the western Caucasus.

identitarian — viewing individuals as composites of their various “identities” — race, sex or gender, religion, sexuality, and the like — and interpreting society as determined by these identities. Identitarians believe that identity is heavily responsible for beliefs and actions, that identity is an important factor in determining whether a stated view is valid and worth listening to and whether an action is defensible, and that those with more disadvantaged identities are more admirable. The use of ‘identity’ in identitarian ideology is inconsistent; some identities are acquired entirely through self-identification, while some are inherent.

Immaculate Conception — in Christian (specifically, Roman Catholic) theology, the conceiving of Mary, the mother of Jesus, without original sin (thus unblemished or “immaculate”), so that she herself was unable, as an adult, to pass original sin onto Jesus when he was born. The Immaculate Conception does not refer to the doctrine that Mary got pregnant with Jesus without having sex; that is the doctrine of the Virgin Birth.

impeach — accuse; besmirch; indict; question the credibility, integrity, or virtue of. ‘Impeachment’ is the term used for the first formal step in removing an official from office under the United States Constitution; the term has frequently been misunderstood to refer to the removal from office itself, a misunderstanding that has extended to its use in non-English environments, like Brazil. Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton, and Donald Trump were impeached; neither they nor any other US president were ever removed from office. Dilma Rousseff’s impeachment came not when she was removed from office, but when she was formally charged with the infractions for which she was removed from office.

incest — sex, marriage, or romance between persons who are, by custom or law, too closely related for such a relationship. As the definition indicates, incest is socially relative; different societies have different standards of what is “too closely related”. The term ‘incest’ does not refer to sex or romance with underage relatives, or children in general; when abortion opponents make exceptions for rape and “incest”, they are (perhaps inadvertently) making allowance for adult women who are pregnant from consensual sex that happens to be with relatives.

Indiaहिन्दूस्थान « Hindūst‛ān » / ہندوستان « Ĥindūstān » / भारत « B‛ārat » — originally, the land of the Indus River; by extension, the historical and cultural region defined by Indian civilization, eventually, the entire land formation (depicted at right) between the northern mountains (including the Himalaya) and the Indian Ocean. By further extension, the modern state constituting much of historical India, after Pakistan (including Bangladesh) separated from the British territory after its independence. For the state: India.

Indo-Gangetic Plain — an expansive lowland (in the lightest green, center-top in the image at right) across northern India, through which the Indus River and Ganges River flow. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the world’s primary concentrations of population, historically and presently, and the origin of Indian civilization and Indo-Asian culture.

isthmus — a narrow area of land joining two larger areas of land. The existence of an isthmus is the apparent justification for the divisions of the Old World and New World landmasses into multiple continents. For more: landform.

JavaJawa — a landmass in the East Indies, the third-most-populous landmass in the world after the Old World and the New World. The main city is Jakarta. While Malay (Bahasa Indonesia) is the lingua franca, the main vernaculars are Javanese (Basa Jawa), Sundanese (Basa Sunda), and Madurese (Basa Madura), all relatives of Malay.

Jews — members of any of three distinct, but frequently and historically overlapping, groups (from Hebrew יהודי « Jəhūdī », “person of Judea”). Ethnic Jews are the children of other ethnic Jews, and thus the biological descendants of the historical Jewish nation. Religious Jews are believers in Judaism, the national religion of the historical Jewish nation; while Judaism is not a significant source of proselytization, conversion to Judaism takes place on a limited scale. Cultural Jews are those raised by Jews in various aspects of the traditional culture of the Jewish nation, whether those aspects include Judaism or not, though generally the term ‘cultural Jews’ suggests those who do not follow Judaism. The term ‘secular Jews’, by contrast, refers explicitly to ethnic or cultural Jews who do not follow Judaism.

jihadism — a global movement within Islam promoting and engaging in armed conflict, including terrorism, against perceived enemies of the religion (from Arabic جهاد « ĝihād », “struggle”). Most jihadism is Sunni, and above all Salafist, and its targets include Shiites and other Muslim minorities, apostate Muslims, Jews, Christians, the West more broadly, Hindus, modernists, liberals, atheists, and sexual minorities.

Kansas City — a city on the Missouri River near the confluence of the Kansas River, after which the city (originally just ‘Kansas’) is named. The original settlement was in the US state of Missouri and is the basis for a municipality of the same name. A later settlement, across the Kansas River, took its name from Kansas City and is the basis for a separate, smaller municipality in the US state of Kansas.

KenyaKĩrĩnyaga (Kikuyu) / Kĩĩnyaa (Kamba) — a mountain in East Africa, and by extension the region around it. The name was later applied to a British colony whose seat of government (Nairobi) was in the mountain region, and retained by the colony when it became an independent state. For that state: Kenya.

Kuwaitالكويت « ɔal-Kūajt » — an Arab city on the Persian Gulf, and by extension, the state controlled from that city, and the country based on that state. For the state: Kuwait.

lake — a large inland body of water; usually, a pool (the North American and African Great Lakes); occasionally, a settlement basin (the Great Salt Lake). For more: surface water.

Levant — a region east of the Mediterranean Sea, south of Anatolia, west of Mesopotamia, and north of the Arabian peninsula. The region corresponds roughly to the countries of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, and the region of Palestine. See also: Sham.

liberalism — the condition of human freedom (from Latin LIBER-, “free”), in which individial rights are protected and promoted, or the ideology favoring such freedom, however conceived, also called classical liberalism. By extension, a political tendency to favor change, relative to a given society (see change spectrum). By further extension, any ideology whose components represent change relative to a given society.

LouisianaLouisiane — originally, a French territory roughly identical to the western Mississippi drainage basin (that is, the drainage basin west of the river itself); later sold to the United States. The term is now generally confined to the much-smaller state of the United States organized from the lower Mississippi, which had been the most populous portion.

Macaronesia — a group of landmasses in the Atlantic Ocean just off the coast of the Old World (from Greek ΜΑΚΑΡ- « makar- », “blessed” + ΝΗΣ- « nēs- », “island”, from the mythological ΜΑΚΑΡΩΝ ΝΗΣΟΙ « Makarōn Nēsoi », “Islands of the Blessed”, eventually supposed to lie in the same approximate location). Most of the group falls into four smaller groups of landmasses: the Azores (Açores), Madeira, the Canaries (Canarias), and Cape Verde (Kabu Verdi).

MacedoniaΜακεδονία « Makedonia » (Greek); Македонија « Makedonija » (Macedonian Slavic) — a historical region in the southern Balkan peninsula, named for an ancient Greek-speaking people, and the state dominated by that people, associated in particular with its most prominent ruler, the conqueror Alexander (“the Great”, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ « Aleksandros »). By extension: (1) a South Slavic nation living in the broader region, a modern state dominated by this nation (now officially North Macedonia), and a country based on that state; (2) a modern province of the Greek state. For the Slavic state: North Macedonia.

Maghrebالمغرب « ɔal-Mağrib » — the west (of the Arab World); historically everything west of Egypt. Residents of Morocco use the term for their country alone.

Manden — a cultural region (dark blue on the map at right) in West Africa, inhabited by the Mande nation (Mandenka) whose dialect (Mandenkan, variously Bambara, Jula/Dyula, Malinke, Mandinka, Mandingo) is a part of the Niger-Congo language family. Mandenkan is widely used as a lingua franca in West Africa (light blue on the map). ‘Mali’ and ‘Manden’ are cognate names; the Mandenka were the central population of the Mali Empire, and are the central population of the present country and state of Mali, as well.

material realm — a self-contained, substantial world operating according to physical laws, and through which material objects interact; a physical “universe”. In materialism, the present, dominant perceptual realm is presumed to be a material realm.

materialism — a belief system that presumes the reality of the perceptual realm — that our perceptions indicate an underlying substantial (material) reality as well. Materialism is a nearly-universal belief system, and therefore exists alongside the other major belief systems commonly called “religions”. Materialism is the primary postulate of modern science, and, along with the scientific method, the basis of all its conclusions. Present materialism holds that the material realm comprises space-time in which particles of twelve fundamental types (six types of quark, six types of lepton) interact systematically with each other by means of four basic forces (gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces), sometimes facilitated by their own fundamental particles; this is the Standard Model of physics. All other fields of science describe complex, systematic interactions that ultimately can be explained in terms of the Standard Model.

Melanesia — a region on a group of landmasses in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, including New Guinea and a number of smaller landmasses to its east (from Greek ΜΕΛΑΝ- « melan- », “black” + ΝΗΣ- « nēs- », “island”). While first identified as a counterpart to Polynesia and Micronesia, it has nothing like the cultural coherence of Polynesia or, to a lesser extent, Micronesia, and was identified primarily by proximity or race. Dialects from various indigenous languages families are spoken; English creoles are used as the lingua franca in much of the region.

meme — an idea that spreads within a culture. Often applied to a very specific kind of meme, otherwise known as an “image macro”, in which a recognizable image is combined with original text following a set pattern, usually as a joke.

Mesopotamia — the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, particularly in the ancient period of the Near East (from Greek ΜΕΣΟΠΟΤΑΜΙΑ « Mesopotamia », “in the middle of the rivers”). As the location of Sumer and its successor Semitic cultures, Mesopotamia was the home of the oldest civilization, and ultimately the most influential, through the expansion of European and Islamic government and culture.

México — a valley (originally Nahuatl ‘Me:šiɔko’, now ‘Valle de México’) on the Central Mexican Plateau, and thus the city occupying that valley (also ‘Ciudad de México’); the original settlement was Tenočtitlan on an island in the now-dry Lake Texcoco. By extension, the (now-subordinate) state (Estado de México) centered on and originally containing the valley and the city, and by further extension the independent federal state (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) governed from the city, and the political nation and country based on that state. For the independent state: México.

Michigan-Huron — a pool of North America, one of the Great Lakes. Conventionally divided into two “lakes”, Michigan and Huron, but functionally one pool. For more: surface water.

Micronesia — a loose cultural region on a group of landmasses along and north of the Equator in the western Pacific Ocean (from Greek ΜΙΚΡ- « mikr- », “small” + ΝΗΣ- « nēs- », “island”). The indigenous dialects are part of the Austronesian family, most of them belonging to a Micronesian subfamily. An independent state within the cultural region, officially the Federated States of Micronesia, is also referred to as ‘Micronesia’. For the state: Federated States of Micronesia.

Mississippi — a drainage path (originally Chippewa « Miš:i-Si:p:i: », “big river”) of North America, starting west of Lake Superior and ending at the Gulf of Mexico near New Orleans; eventually called, redundantly, the ‘Mississippi River’. Later applied to a territory of the United States, east of the river and partially on the Gulf, and then to the western half of that territory as the first state admitted to the union from the territory, the rest eventually becoming Alabama.

Moldova — a region within cultural România, the portion lying northeast of the Carpathian mountains. The western half remains in the state of România. The eastern half was conquered by Russia during the Second World War, was organized as a separate republic in the Soviet Union, and gained independence in 1991. At the same time, it lost control of Transdniestria, dominated by Slavs. The main city in western Moldova is Iaşi; the main city in eastern Moldova is Chişinău. For the independent state: Moldova.

monarchy — originally, rule by one person; in this sense, equivalent to ‘autocracy’ or ‘dictatorship’, and now called absolute monarchy. The use of ‘absolute monarchy’ is usually reserved for those dictatorships that are hereditary, but there are historical and modern hereditary dictatorships that are not typically labelled as “monarchies” (North Korea and Syria, for example), and “monarchies” that are not hereditary (certain ancient kingships, for instance). Over time, numerous traditional monarchical states, particularly in Europe, have evolved into democracies, while retaining the former office of monarch for ceremonial purposes; this system is distinguished as constitutional monarchy. The supposed vesting of sovereignty in the constitutional monarch is, in such states, a carefully-cultivated myth, but has also led (for example, in Liechtenstein and Nepal) to the reclaiming or attempted reclaiming of that power. For more: government.

MozambiqueMoçambique — a small landmass off the east coast of southern Africa, home to an Arab trading port, later the seat of government for the Portuguese East Africa colony. The name was later expanded to the mainland province of the colony that contained the landmass (modern Nampula), and later expanded again to the entire post-colonial state formed from the colony. For that state: Mozambique.

mutual intelligibility — the ability of two or more dialects to be understood by each other’s speakers. Linguists typically use mutual intelligibility to distinguish between “languages” and “dialects”; varieties of speech that are mutually intelligible are said to be dialects of the same language, while separate languages must be mutually unintelligible. Intelligibility is always a matter of degree, so linguists who make the language-dialect distinction are depending on a somewhat-arbitrary standard. For more: language.

Najdنجد « Naĝd » — an interior region of the Arabian peninsula centered on Riyadh (الرياض « ɔal-Rīād »). As the home of both the first Ibn Saud (محمد بن سعود « Muham:ad bin Sacūd ») and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (محمد بن عبد الوهاب « Muham:ad bin Cabd ɔal-Ŭah:āb »), it is the political and spiritual base of modern Saudi Arabia, and the place of origin of Wahhabism (وهابية « Ŭah:ābīaḧ »).

New World — The main landmass of the Western Hemisphere, or that landmass and all the smaller adjacent and internal landmasses; America. The conventional division of the New World into two continents is based on an arbitrary emphasis on the Isthmus of Panamá. The New World is dominated by cultural Europeans, mostly Western Christians speaking just a few dialects — Spanish (Español/Castellano), English, Portuguese (Português), and French (Français). Aboriginal dialects have survived to a greater extent in Latin America, such as Quechua (Runasimi) and Aymara.

New York — an Anglophone city in North America, originating on lower Manhattan, or the municipality based on this city, both also called ‘New York City’. By extension, the US state including this city, also called ‘New York State’.

North Africa — the portion of the conventional continent of Africa lying within and north of the Sahara.

North America — in most uses, an element of the continental model, the portion of America (the New World landmass) from the Isthmus of Panamá north. In the world-regional model, and in the usage of Latin Americans, ‘North America’ is the part of America north of México: the United States, Canada, and Greenland.

North China Plain华北平原 / 華北平原 « Xua35 Pei214 P‛iŋ35 Üen35 » — a lowland region (depicted at right, in the center of the image) in eastern Asia, mostly inhabited by the Chinese, and one of the world’s primary concentrations of population, presently and historically.

Northeast Corridor — a nearly-continuous region of urban development on the east coast of North America, entirely within the United States, comprising the entire metropolitan areas of Boston and Washington and all the cities between, including New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Washington and Baltimore are now a continuous urban area, and New York and Philadelphia nearly so. Also called ‘Megalopolis’ and ‘BosWash’.

Nostratic — a probable language family grouping several better-established families, particularly Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, and Kartvelian. The full group given by Allan Bomhard also includes Elamo-Dravidian, Altaic, Uralic-Yukaghir, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Gilyak, Eskimo-Aleut, Sumerian, and Etruscan. The Nostratic theory, and the glottalic theory of Indo-European which it partially reinforces, are still far from accepted by many linguists.

NovorossiyaНовороссия « Novorossija » — a territory (meaning “New Russia”) along the north coast of the Black Sea, conquered by Russia in the eighteenth century, mostly from the Turks, and settled by Slavs (including, in conventional terms, both Russians and Ukrainians). It was directly south of Ukraine, which Russia also controlled; Novorossiya included the western Donbass, while the eastern Donbass had already been in the Russian empire. Today, the territory is mostly Russian-speaking, particularly in the cities. In the later Russian empire/Soviet Union, Novorossiya was administered as a part of Ukraine, thus most of the territory is now controlled by the independent Ukrainian state, while Crimea is controlled by Russia and the Donbass is partially independent, under heavy Russian influence.

obscene — offensive for its clear invocations of bodily functions, particularly sexuality, and therefore deemed disgusting. When describing language, the term ‘obscene’ is generally confined to vulgar (that is, common-language) expressions, hence ‘fuck’, ‘cunt’, ‘shit’, and the like. Euphemistic expressions for bodily functions are generally not considered obscene. Compare: profane, vulgar.

ocean — Earth’s main settlement basin, or a primary division of it. The named “oceans” on Earth are all in fact parts of one large settlement basin, containing nearly all of the world’s surface water. The conventional “oceans” as taught in the United States are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic; other systems add a Southern Ocean, ringing Antarctica. For more: surface water.

Ohio — a drainage path (originally Iroquois « Ohí-jo », “great river”) of North America, between Pittsburgh and the Mississippi, eventually called, redundantly, the ‘Ohio River’. Later, a state of the United States, the first state admitted to the union from the territories along the river.

Old World — The main landmass of the Eastern Hemisphere, or that landmass and all the smaller adjacent and internal landmasses. Also called ‘Afro-Eurasia’. The conventional division of the Old World into three continents is arbitrary, based in part on a desire to give Europe a further distinction.

Ontario — a pool (originally Huron « Õtarí:-jo », “great lake”) of North America, the lowest of the Great Lakes, draining into the Saint Lawrence River; eventually called, redundantly, ‘Lake Ontario’. The name was later given to a province of British North America, and then Canada.

Oregon — a region along the west coast of North America, lying between California and the Alexander Archipelago, extending inland to the continental divide. The name was later applied to the US state at the southern end of this region.

outsourcing — moving economic activity outside of a firm, while still using it in the firm’s overall activity; hiring or subcontracting for an activity formerly done in-house. Outsourcing is not the same as offshoring, which is moving economic activity out of the firm’s primary country, whether it is retained within the firm or not. (Offshoring to a foreign branch of the firm is, conversely, not outsourcing.)

ozone depletion — the thinning of the Earth’s natural ozone (O3) layer, through the interaction of ozone with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), such as were formerly commonly used in refrigerants and aerosols and thus released into the atmosphere. The ozone layer’s primary benefit to human life is the filtering of ultraviolet radiation. Ozone depletion was concentrated in the atmosphere above Antarctica; the reduction in use of CFCs has succeeded in reversing the effect. Ozone depletion is not the same as global warming or the greenhouse effect.

Padania — a region at the northern end of the Italian peninsula, originally the valley and basin of the Po River (Padan); by extension, the Po-Venetian lowland, its entire drainage basin, or the territory in which the distinctive northern Italian dialects (concentrated in the populous Po-Venetian lowland) are or have been spoken. The term ‘Padania’ is often associated with the nationalism/separatism of the Northern League (Liga Nord), or even its racism, but its meaning is straightforward in the original and the region it describes is real and distinctive enough.

Palestineפלשת « Pəlešet » (Hebrew); فلسطين « Filastīn » (Arabic) — a region in the Near East, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The expression ‘Palestinian’ to refer to Arab Palestinians was presumably in the beginning just to distinguish them from other Arabs. Because much of Palestine is within the state/country of Israel, ‘Palestine’ is now used mostly for Arab Palestine. Though an Arab Palestinian state is talked about as a goal, this refers only to recognition of statehood; Gaza is effectively independent, and parts of the West Bank are a shared government with Israel. For the independent states: Gaza; West Bank.

perceptual realm — a self-contained world accessible through perception. In materialism, a particular perceptual realm (the world of everyday perception) is taken to be substantial and thus the “real” world. Programmed worlds in virtual reality, though, are also perceptual realms.

-phobia — fear, especially excessive or irrational fear, often implied to be a psychological disorder (as a suffix; from Greek -ΦΟΒΙΑ « p‛obia », from ΦΟΒΟΣ « p‛obos », “fear”). Recently ‘-phobia’ has been used to form linguistically-questionable terms for hate. ‘Homophobia’ etymologically means, approximately, “fear of the same”, but was coined to mean “hatred of homosexuality”. ‘Transphobia’ etymologically means “fear of what lies across”, but was coined by analogy to mean “hatred of transgender persons”. ‘Islamophobia’ means “fear of Islam”, but is used to mean “hatred of Muslims”. All three have come to be applied quite loosely (see also: racism), for any belief or action that indicates disagreement with or disapproval of a particular view of gays, transgender persons, or Muslims. ‘Islamophobia’ in particular has been employed to stifle criticism of Islam as a set of beliefs, rather than actual bigotry towards Muslims.

planet — originally, a celestial body not fixed in location relative to the celestial sphere (from Greek ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗΣ « planētēs », “wanderer”), especially those of the same relative size and brightness as the stars themselves. As most of the original planets were eventually discovered to be bodies that orbited the sun as does Earth, the term ‘planet’ was repurposed to apply to all bodies that directly orbit the sun (including Earth), and then to bodies that directly orbit any star. The term ‘planet’ has more recently been repurposed once again, to apply to a select group of directly-orbiting bodies with specific qualities chosen primarily to limit the number of “planets”.

Polynesia — a cultural region on a group of landmasses in the Pacific Ocean (from Greek ΠΟΛΥ- « polu- », “many” + ΝΗΣ- « nēs- », “island”), roughly consisting of a “Triangle” with vertices at Hawai‘i, New Zealand (Aotearoa), and Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Polynesian is a single linguistic group within the Austronesian family; descendant dialects are spoken by the aboriginal peoples throughout Polynesia (though not quite by all aboriginal peoples in the Polynesian Triangle). The Polynesian expansion (from a homeland referred to natively as *Sawaiki) followed the development of sophisticated seafaring technology, and Polynesia previously extended even further. In some of the original Polynesian subregions, especially Hawai‘i and New Zealand, the aboriginals are now a minority.

pool — a basin in the middle of a drainage path. Most “lakes”, such as the North American Great Lakes or the African Great Lakes, are pools. For more: surface water.

population — a group of persons with the potential for continuity through natural reproduction, containing all ages and both reproductive sexes, and thus defined by something other than age or sex.

product — something wanted, desired, or preferred that is created. The creation of products can include their manufacture, but it can also include the conversion of potential resources (such as “natural resources”) into personal or institutional resources. Economists typically divide products into “goods” (physical objects) and “services” (actions); some products, however, are apparently both, or not clearly one or the other.

profane — offensive to the sacred. When describing language, profanity includes ‘God’, ‘damn’, ‘hell’, and ‘Jesus’. Compare: obscene, vulgar.

property spectrum — a continuum of political positioning and tendency based on the question of property rights, with one end of the continuum supporting the absolute right to the control and use of private property, and one end favoring the abolition of private property (see communism). Compare change spectrum.

PrussiaPrūsa (Old Prussian) / Preußen (German) — a region on the eastern end of the Baltic Sea, around the settlement of Twangste at the mouth of the Pregolya River (Преголя « Pregolja »), extending west to the Vistula River (Wisła). Prussia was a region of the Western Baltic culture. Eventually German culture came to predominate in the area, and Twangste became Königsberg. A Germanized Prussian state became in time the most powerful of the German states, after uniting with Brandenburg (around Berlin), and the resulting state was the foundation of the modern state of Germany. But the original region is now controlled by Poland and Russia, and the Old Prussian dialect is no longer spoken. Königsberg is now Kaliningrad (Калининград « Kaliningrad »).

Punjabپنجاب « Panĝāb » / ਪੰਜਾਬ « Pãjāb » — a region (meaning “five rivers”) of the upper Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain, and a primary locus of the creation of Indian culture. The five rivers are the Indus (سندھ « Sindh » / سنڌو « Sind‛ū » / सिंधु « Sĩd‛u »), the Jhelum (جہلم « Ĝihlam » / ਜਿਹਲਮ « Jihlam »), the Chenab (چناب « Čanāb » / ਚਨਾਬ « Canāb »), the Ravi (راوی « Rāŭī » / ਰਾਵੀ « Rāvī »), and the Sutlej (ستلج « Satluĝ » / ਸਤਲੁਜ « Satluj »). By extension, the dialect area covering this region (part of the Indic dialect continuum), or any political subdivision organized in this region, including the province in Pakistan or the state in the Indian Republic. The first vowel is “uh”, not “oo”.

Quad Cities — a group of four settlements and municipalities along the Mississippi that have grown into a single metropolitan area: Davenport, Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline. The first three, Davenport, Rock Island, and Moline, were originally known as the Tri-Cities. Some time after the coinage of ‘Quad Cities’, Bettendorf surpassed East Moline in municipal population, and was retroactively imagined to be the fourth of the quad.

qualitative — regarding quality; determined by kind or category. Two things are qualitatively different if they are of fundamentally-different kinds. The term ‘qualitative’ is often used in academics for “subjective”, based on feelings (for example, “qualitative” research, involving interviews to ascertain the personal views of subjects), but this meaning is not the basis of the qualitative-quantitative distinction.

quantitative — regarding quantity; determined by amount or size. Two things are quantitatively different if their differences can be measured (including by counting); two things that differ quantitatively but not qualitatively are of the same kind, and can only be distinguished by measurement.

race — a clade within a species or subspecies. Within humans, a race is therefore a population with a common biological descent. Such populations are not always reproductively self-contained; many were, or were closer to being, in the past, when travel and migration were limited, but reproduction across races has been more common in some environments and less in others. Historiographically, a race can be any ethnic nation. In other discourse, ‘race’ is used distinctly based on context. In global or generic contexts, a race is an ethnic population on the broadest scale, especially one of the the three largest ethnic populations, originating in the pre-global era in eastern Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and western/southern Eurasia, and known to traditional physical anthropology by the (now-deprecated) terms ‘Mongoloid’, ‘Negroid’, and ‘Caucasoid’, respectively. In a society-specific context, a race is an ethnic population relevant to that society and its history, involving, for example, migration, conquest, or slavery. Distinguishing physical characteristics can be an element of race, but this is far from universal. Culture often accompanies race in a society-specific context, but culture alone does not determine race; two populations distinguished, for example, just by religion, are not different races. Race as a general matter is not a social construct; humans are the result of empirically-different lines of biological descent. But which ethnic populations we choose to identify and focus on is a matter of social convention.

racism — prejudice based on race, usually (but not always) negative prejudice. Because the term has powerful connotations, ‘racism’ is now applied more loosely, to beliefs or actions with a racial aspect and some negative consequence, or even with no apparent racial aspect but negative consequences differentiated by race; all of this is far removed from the original sense. Prejudice based on culture is not racism; for example, anti-Muslim bigotry is not racism because Muslims are not a race. Conversely, prejudice against Jews often is racism, because it is directed against Jews whether they believe in Judaism or not; notably, the hatred of Jews by the Nazis seems to have been driven primarily by ideas of race, not culture. Again because the term has powerful connotations, some on the political left insist on reserving ‘racism’ only for prejudice (or inadvertent negative consequences) against groups they deem as underprivileged or oppressed.

reactionary — favoring a return to the beliefs and practices of previous times; wishing or intending to undo changes that have taken place. See also: change spectrum.

reboot — a work of storytelling, generally filmed (for cinema or television), in which characters from a previous work are used, but in a new continuity, which overwrites the previous continuity, and typically using new actors. This is a reference to the computer reboot, where the computer is turned off and started again. ‘Reboot’ does not refer to works of storytelling that exist in the same continuity as earlier works; those are sequels (or prequels), revivals, or continuations.

republic — a state (from Latin RESPVBLICA, “people’s thing”) in which power rests with the people, not with one or a few individuals; meant especially as a contrast with traditional absolute monarchy. There is nothing historically or etymologically that supports the imagined distinction (generally traceable to James Madison) between ‘democracy’ and ‘republic’ in which a democracy involves direct rule by the people, and a republic involves indirect rule through representatives. Madison (as Publius) made this distinction in ‘The federalist’, number 10, but it has been adopted only by a narrow group of ideologues opposed to direct democracy.

Rhode Island — a landmass in Narragansett Bay, now more often called ‘Aquidneck Island’. Politically joined with the nearby Providence region, as the Colony (later, State) of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. The abbreviation of this long name as ‘Rhode Island’ has meant that this shorter name is now mostly used for the US state.

river — a drainage path that carries a significant flow of water; generally used for those carrying the widest or deepest flows of water. For more: surface water.

Ruhrgebiet — a region of continuous urbanization in western Germany, along the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, extending east from the Rhein; originally a center of heavy industry owing to its coalfields. The Ruhrgebiet contains the original settlements of Dortmund, Essen, and Duisburg, among many others.

rural — of the countryside; pertaining to agrarian areas, including adjacent wilderness but not areas that are entirely wilderness. In modern US political discourse, ‘rural’ is often used misleadingly for any non-metropolitan area, including non-metropolitan units like counties and even whole states. Such units are described as “rural” in their entirety despite containing significant urban areas; “rural” counties typically contain at least one city of 20,000-50,000; the “rural” state of Vermont contains a metropolitan area of over 200,000, much of it unmistakably urban.

Sahara — a desert (from Arabic صحراء « sahɔ », “desert”) occupying most of the northern portion of Africa. The existence of the desert, its inhospitability to most life and the difficulty of crossing it, are primarily responsible for the cultural distinctions between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa and for Arab dominance of North Africa, as well as the division of ecorealms within the Old World.

Sahel — the border region south of the Sahara, a band of arid grassland and shrubland stretching across Africa (from Arabic ساحل « sāhil », “shore”, as the metaphorical shore of the Sahara).

Salafism — a reactionary ideology and movement within Islam venerating the generations alive during and immediately after the founding of the religion (from Arabic سلف « salaf », “ancestors”). Salafist thought is not merely theologically fundamentalist, but socially and culturally reactionary, as it proposes a return to the values of the founding era.

Salish Sea — an inlet of the ocean surrounding Vancouver Island on the west coast of North America; conventionally divided into Puget Sound, the Strait of Georgia, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

script — a system of writing; loosely speaking, an alphabet.

sea — a large body of salty water, smaller than the ocean; usually, an identifiable expanse, branch, or inlet of the ocean; occasionally, a settlement basin (the Caspian Sea). For more: surface water.

Semites — a broad cultural nation originating in the Near East, speakers of the Semitic dialects of the Afro-Asiatic family. The world’s two largest conventional religions, Christianity and Islam, both originated among the Semites, and the script developed for Northwest Semitic is the parent of the Greek script, and its descendants Latin and Cyrillic, as well as Arabic and possibly Brahmi. While Jews are Semites, there are other current (as well as historical) groups who are also Semites, including the Arabs, the Abyssinians, the Phoenicians, and the Arameans. The term ‘Anti-Semitic’ for anti-Jewish sentiment is inaccurate, then, and nonsensical when applied to Arabs.

settlement basin — a basin at the downstream end of flow in which surface water collects. This includes the ocean as well as certain other bodies, such as the Caspian Sea and the Great Salt Lake. For more: surface water.

settler society — a nation, state, or region whose people are, or are predominantly, descendants of settlers or colonists, and whose culture is that of the settlers, as opposed to any aboriginal populations that may have existed, which have been largely displaced or diminished in number, with their cultures marginalized or extinct. While the term is most commonly applied to societies descended from Western Europeans, such as in the New World (the United States and Canada, Argentina and Uruguay, Chile, Brazil, Costa Rica) or Australasia, it can also apply to other peoples and cultures, such as the Chinese (Taiwan, Singapore), Arabs (all the North African and Levantine states), or Russians (Siberia, Novorossiya).

sex — a biological category of most eukaryotic species based on roles in reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves the production of offspring with genetic contributions from different sexes; in most animal species a female and male are required for natural reproduction. Nearly all humans are born unambiguously either female or male, and the fraction of intersex individuals who truly don’t fit into this biological binary is very small. As defined by reproductive systems, sex is inherent and immutable, though surgery and hormone therapy can alter many associated characteristics. For more: sex and gender.

Shamالشام « ɔal-Šām » — the north (of the Arab World). At its broadest, it refers to the entire Levant. It can also be used just for Syria, or at its narrowest, for Damascus alone. The name ‘ISIS’ is an abbreviation for ‘Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham’ (Arabic الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام « ɔal-Daŭlaḧ ɔal-Ɔislāmīaḧ fī ɔal-Cirāq ŭaɔl-Šām »); the second ‘S’ stands not for ‘Syria’ but for ‘Sham’, and has the broadest possible implication.

Sichuan四川 « Si51 Ç‛uan5 » — a lowland region in inland China (now often distinguished as the ‘Sichuan Basin’), and a historical region centered on that lowland. By extension, the much-larger province of the modern Chinese state, which includes territories historically part of Tibet, but excludes the traditional Sichuan city of Chongqing/Chungking (重庆 « Ç‛uŋ51 Ć‛iŋ35 »). The name, also transliterated as ‘Szechwan’ or ‘Szechuan’, is literally “four” plus “river(s)”, but did not necessarily refer originally to a group of four rivers.

soldier — an armed combatant, often but not always in organized service to a state. The term is sometimes applied honorifically to all members of an organization that includes soldiers, even those members in noncombatant roles. Members of the US Armed Forces and their supporters usually insist on limiting this term (in a US context) to members of the US Army, but there is no historical basis for this practice.

sovereignty — in general, the (subjectively understood and claimed) right to rule; also, specifically, a franchise in the international state system. For more: government.

state — a social and territorial system created by a government.

steppeстепь « stepĵ » — a grassland in the Old World, extending in a belt between the Danube basin in the west and the Amur basin in the east. Also called the “Eurasian Steppe” or the “Great Steppe”. The steppe played an important role in history as a traffic route, particularly for nomads and nomadic cavalry of various cultures, such as the Mongols and the Turks. By extension, any grassland similar to the steppe.

Stockholm — a landmass (from holm, “island”) along the outlet of Lake Malar (Mälaren) in Sweden (Sverige), and by extension the city centered on that landmass, the largest in Sweden. While the landmass in question is probably the main landmass in Stockholm’s central area, officially known as ‘Stadsholmen’ (“the city island”) but more commonly called ‘Gamla Stan’ (“the old town”), an alternative candidate is the smaller Helgeandsholmen (“the island of the Holy Spirit”), immediately to the north.

stream — a drainage path, smaller in width or flow than a river. For more: surface water.

substance — a thing that exists above and beyond the idea or perception of the thing. A substance (from Latin SVBSTANTIA, “standing under”) is an underlying or independent reality rather than merely an apparent reality.

Sudanالسودان « ɔal-Sūdān » — a region (short for بلاد السودان « Bilād ɔal-Sūdān », “land of blacks”) in the north of Sub-Saharan Africa, immediately south of the Sahel. At least two colonial territories were named after this region: the French Sudan, which became independent as Mali, and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, which became independent as simply ‘Sudan’. Since the independence of South Sudan, the present country/state of Sudan now contains very little if any of the larger Sudan. For the state: Sudan.

Sumer𒆠𒂗𒄀 « Ki-en-gi » — a nation and cultural region of the ancient Near East, at the southern end of Mesopotamia. The Sumerians (𒌦𒊕𒈪𒂵 « Ùg̃-sag̃-gíg-ga ») originated Mesopotamian civilization, the world’s oldest and most important, and developed the cuneiform script. Their dialect, Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 « Eme-g̃ir15 »), which went extinct in ancient times, had no established relationship to any known language family, but is among the proposed Nostratic dialects.

superstition — belief that has no basis in reality; generally, an explanation for a natural phenomenon that is ill-founded and traditional. ‘Superstition’ as a term is inherently negative, and consequently applied to the beliefs of others, even by those who have beliefs of their own with no basis in reality. In parts of the West, ‘superstition’ is restricted primarily to a narrow set of folk beliefs, such as that random objects or occurrences are signs (or causes) of good or bad luck. Compare faith.

SwahilikiSwahili — a dialect in the Bantu dialect continuum of the Niger-Congo language family, originally spoken on the coast of East Africa (from Arabic سواحل « saŭāhil », “coasts”), centered around present-day Dar es Salaam. Its status as the vernacular of the coastal region led to its development as a lingua franca, first among Sub-Saharan African fishers, later between Sub-Saharan Africans and Arab traders who frequented the coast, and later still for inland trade among Sub-Saharan Africans, many of whom spoke other Bantu dialects. It has been adopted as an official dialect by the states of Tanzania (where it originated), Kenya, and Uganda, and is the primary lingua franca of the eastern Congo basin (mostly in the country of Congo-Kinshasa).

Taiwan臺灣 / 台灣 / 台湾 « Tai35 Uan35 » / « T‛ai35 Uan5 » — a landmass off the eastern coast of East Asia. By extension, the independent state now controlling and mostly confined to that landmass, officially known as the Republic of China (中華民國 / 中华民国 « Çuŋ5 Xua35 Min35 Kuo35 » / « Tioŋ1 Hua35 Bin35 Kok1 »). Taiwan is inhabited primarily by Chinese, but there is also a small aboriginal population speaking Austronesian dialects, and Taiwan is believed to be the origin of the entire Austronesian language family. For the state: Taiwan.

terrorism — the deliberate use of violence against noncombatants to create a general state of terror, in service of a social or political aim, typically through the intermediary of popular pressure to change government policy. Terrorism is a tactic, not an ideology, and has been used in support of numerous and sometimes diametrically opposite causes. By contrast, the use of violence against combatants, and the targeting of armed servants of the state, is war, not terrorism. The accidental killing of civilians is also not terrorism.

Tibetབོད་ « Bod » — a plateau in central Asia (depicted at near right, in the center of the image), bordered on the south by the Himalaya, and the cultural nation of those speaking Tibetan dialects who have traditionally occupied this plateau and the vicinity. ‘Tibet’ is now often used for the much-smaller autonomous region in the modern Chinese state.

Tibeto-Burman — one of the two branches of the Sino-Tibetan language family (the other being Sinitic), forming a single dialect continuum (depicted at far right, in blue). Most dialects in the continuum are politically marginalized, but two states (outlined at right) are dominated by speakers of Tibeto-Burman: Burma (ဗမာ « Bamā »), by speakers of Burmese (ဗမာစာ « Bamācā »), and Bhutan (འབྲུག་(ཡུལ་) « Ɔbrug (Jul) »), by speakers of Dzongkha (རྫོང་ཁ་ « Rzoŋ K‛a »). The large northern area of the cultural region is Tibet, occupied by speakers of Tibetan (བོད་སྐད་ « Bod Skad »).

totalitarian — tending or intending to control the totality of society and the lives of individuals, or advocating a system that does so. Compare: authoritarian. The original fascism (fascismo) of Italy and the Nazism (Nazismus) of Germany were both totalitarian and highly authoritarian. The various self-designated Commmunist states were or have been totalitarian for most of their existence, but their levels of authoritarianism varied with the heads of government. Salafist organizations such as ISIS have elements of authoritarianism, but should be viewed primarily as totalitarian.

tragedyΤΡΑΓΩΙΔΙΑ « tragōidia » — a Greek drama in which the protagonist’s hubris (ΥΒΡΙΣ « ‛ubris »), or failure to know its place, especially with respect to the gods, leads to a disastrous outcome for the protagonist. This was later extended to a drama with an unfortunate outcome for the protagonist regardless of cause, such as a Shakespearean tragedy in which the outcome follows mostly from misinformation. In modern usage, ‘tragedy’ is simply any unfortunate outcome, in life or fiction, for any reason, especially but not exclusively a disastrous outcome.

troll — fish by dragging a line through the water. As a metaphor of this: say or do something known to be provocative solely to enjoy the reaction it will provoke. By extension, a troll is someone who seeks to provoke a reaction in this way, or an act of trolling. The substance of the provocation is not serious; or to state it conversely, a person making a provocative point in earnest is not trolling. Trolling, because it is disruptive and done primarily for the amusement of a few, is widely despised, so naturally it has become common to dismiss political or intellectual opponents as “trolls”.

trope — a literary metaphor. In popular usage, ‘trope’ is now more frequently a recurring idea or theme in culture, as a meme or cliché, especially one considered negative or false.

TurkestanTürkestan — a cultural region of the Old World, extending from Anatolia to northern Asia, home to the Turks.

TurksTürkler (Turkish) — a cultural nation speaking dialects of the Turkic family, usually considered a constituent of a larger Altaic family. The Turkic dialects (excluding Chuvash, Чăваш Чĕлхй « Čăvaš Čĕlxĭ ») form a single dialect continuum, located in Turkestan. Conventional “languages” within Turkic are generally identified by ethnicity or tribal identity, not by mutual intelligibility; they include Turkish (Türkçe), Azeri (Azəri Dili), Tatar (Tatarça), Bashkir (Башҡорт Теле « Bašq´ort Tele »), Turkmen (Türkmençe), Kazakh (Қазақ Тілі « Qazaq Tílí »), Uzbek (O‘zbekcha), Kyrgyz (Кыргызча « Kyrgyzča »), Uyghur (Uyğurçe), and Yakut (Саха Тыла « Saxa Tyla »). Most Turkic peoples are traditionally Muslim; the primary exception is the Gagauz, who are traditionally Eastern Orthodox. The term ‘Turk’ is often applied solely to those living in the state of Turkey.

universe — the totality of existence; the collective of all things. In materialism, the term ‘universe’ has been applied simply to the present material realm, excluding both abstract and conceptual things. As a recent materialist theory has developed the idea of multiple material realms existing simultaneously, these have each been dubbed “universes”; the idea of multiple universes is oxymoronic in the original sense of the term.

Uttar Pradeshउत्तर प्रदेश « Uttar Pradēś » — a subordinate state of the state of India, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and by far the world’s most populous non-independent governmental region. The main city and seat of government is Lucknow (लख्नऊ « Lak‛naū »). The name means “northern province” and would historically have suggested a larger region; it was chosen in part because the province was previously referred to commonly as “UP”, for the United Provinces of Agra (आगरा « Āgrā ») and Oudh (अवध « Avad‛ »), the province’s original name under British rule.

Uyghur — a dialect of the Turkic family (Uyğurçe / ئۇيغۇرچە « Ỉūjğūrčeh » / Уйғурчә « Uĭğurčə »), or a speaker of that dialect (Uyğur / ئۇيغۇر « Ỉūjğūr » / Уйғур « Uĭğur »). The Uyghur nation lives towards the eastern end of Turkestan, mostly in the Chinese state. The vowel in the first syllable is the ‘u’, not the ‘y’, hence “ooy-ghoor”, not “wee-ghoor” [ʔujˈɣur].

vulgar — common, of the common people; by extension, not worthy of respect or even offensive because of its commonness. When describing language, the term ‘vulgar’ is mostly confined to topics that are otherwise obscene — that is, invoking bodily functions, and thus disgusting. Vulgar language avoids euphemism; in English it is thus generally drawn from Germanic, not Romance, vocabulary, for example, ‘fuck’, rather than ‘copulate’. Compare: obscene, profane.

watershed — a ridge that divides water that flows into one drainage path or body of water from water that flows into another; the elevated border of a drainage basin. As the term ‘watershed’ has come to be used for the drainage basin itself, a watershed is now called, in that context, a ‘watershed break’. The metaphorical use of ‘watershed’ still refers, however, to the original sense: “a watershed moment in history” (that is, a time or event that divides history into two different periods); “the 9 PM watershed” (the time before which and after which very different television shows are acceptable). For more: surface water.

weather — short-term conditions of sunlight, temperature, pressure, humidity, and precipitation, varying in any location based on external conditions, and season. Weather is distinct from climate.

West Africa — a region in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the far northwest, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Sahara, extending in the east approximately to the Cameroonian Highlands. One of the world’s major concentrations of population.

Yemenاليمن « ɔal-Jaman » — the south (of the Arab World); historically the southern end of the Arabian peninsula. More recently confined to the state(s) on the southern tip of the peninsula, which excludes some contiguous populations in Saudi Arabia. For the state: Yemen.

Zimbabwe — a Bantu (probably proto-Shona) city, of the eleventh through fifteenth centuries, near modern Masvingo in the Republic of Zimbabwe. The original city is now in ruins; by extension, a zimbabwe can be any similar ruins in the vicinity from approximately the same period. On the independence of the British colony of (Southern) Rhodesia, the new state adopted the name ‘Zimbabwe’; the ancient city is now generally referred to as ‘Great Zimbabwe’.