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2009-08-30: An election in leads to a significant victory for the opposition 民主党 « Minsijutou ».

2009-07-29: A repeat parliamentary election is held in Moldova, as the previous parliament had been unable to elect a president. The new parliament contains a small majority for the pro-Western opposition, but also not enough to elect a president.

2009-07-27: Граждани за Европейско Развитие на България becomes the government of България; Бойко Борисов becomes prime minister.

2009-07-26: A runoff is held for the presidency of A Guiné – Bissau; Malam Bacai Sanha of the Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde defeats Kumba Yalá of the Partido da Renovação Social.

2009-07-23: A presidential election is held in Кыргызстан, but the main opposition candidate, Алмаз Атамбаев, withdraws on the same day, and the current head of régime, Курманбек Бакиев, is soon declared the official winner.

2009-07-18: A presidential election is held in موريتانيا « Mūrītānīā »; the head of the military régime in power, محمد ولد عبد العزيز « Muham:ad Ŭuld Cabd ’al-Cazīz », who overthrew the elected government, stands as a candidate and is declared the official winner.

2009-07-12: The ruler of Congo-Brazzaville, Denis Sassou Nguesso, stages a presidential election, and claims to have won a large majority.

2009-07-08: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is reelected as president of Indonesia.

2009-07-06: Jadranka Kosor replaces Ivo Sanader, also of the Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica, as prime minister of Hrvatska.

2009-07-01: Ricardo Martinelli of the Cambio Democrático becomes president of Panamá.

2009-06-28: Elected president Manuel Zelaya of Honduras is deposed by the army, at the direction of the Supreme Court and with the support of Congress, after repeated extralegal activity in pursuit of a referendum to keep himself in power. Roberto Micheletti, also of the Partido Liberal, becomes president.

2009-06-26: Tandja Mamadou, president of Niger, having lost a court case to hold a referendum on extending his term in office, and having dissolved parliament, assumes power to rule by decree.

2009-06-21: A significant increase in autonomy takes effect in Kalaallit Nunaat, after a referendum in support in late 2008.

2009-06-18: Цахиагийн Элбэгдорж of the Эх Орон-Ардчилан becomes president of Монгол Улс.

2009-06-12: An election is held in ايران « ’Īrān » for the junior post of president; of the approved candidates, the incumbent محمود احمدى نژاد « Mehmūd ’Ahmedī Nežād » is said officially to have won, but almost certainly lost, leading to fraud charges from his reformist opponents.

2009-06-12: A new government, led by Inuit Ataqatigiit, takes office in Kalaallit Nunaat. IA leader Kuupik Kleist becomes prime minister.

2009-06-07: Elections for the European Parliament favor the conservative parties — pro-business, nationalist, and euroskeptic — though the largest such group, the European People’s Party, will shrink slightly as the British Conservatives withdraw and the conservative groups are realigned.

2009-06-07: Dictator Omar Bongo of Gabon dies, in a hospital in España; the governments of Gabon and España originally deny the news.

2009-06-07: In parliamentary elections in لبنان « Lubnān », the pro-Western حلف 14 آذار « Hilf 14 ’Āðār » wins 71 seats, the pro-سوريا « Sūrīā » bloc led by حزب الله « Hizb ’ul-Lah » wins 57. Given حزب الله « Hizb ’ul-Lah »’s sizable army and previous use of violence to seize a veto in the government, the government will presumably remain undemocratic.

2009-06-07: The Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei wins 26 of 60 parliamentary seats and its governing-coalition partner Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei wins 13 in Lëtzebuerg.

2009-06-05: Jaume Bartumeu Cassany of the opposition Partit Socialdemòcrata becomes cap de govern of Andorrà.

2009-06-02: 김정일 « Kim Ceŋ Il » is reported to have chosen his third son, 김정운 « Kim Ceŋ Un », as the next ruler of 북조선 « Puk Co Sen ».

2009-06-02: Inuit Ataqatigiit, led by Kuupik Kleist, wins a plurality in parliamentary elections in Kalaallit Nunaat.

2009-06-01: Mauricio Funes of the opposition Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional becomes president of El Salvador.

2009-05-27: The prime minister of the Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine, Nedžad Branković, announces his resignation.

2009-05-24: Цахиагийн Элбэгдорж of the opposition Эх Орон-Ардчилан is elected president of Монгол Улс.

2009-05-21: The Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond is removed from the governing coalition in Eesti.

2009-05-18: The தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள் « Tamizīza Vitutalæp Pulikal » are largely defeated by the armed forces of ශ්‍රී ලංකා « Śrī Lãkā »; leader வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன் « Vēluppillæ Pirapākaraň » is killed.

2009-03-17: The elected president of Madagasikara, Marc Ravalomanana, is overthrown by the military, led by André Ndriarijaona, and opposition leader Andry Rajoelina, mayor of Antananarivo. Ndriarijaona had earlier seized control of the army, and Rajoelina had declared himself president.

2009-03-02: The ruler of A Guiné – Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira, is assassinated by army elements, shortly after the killing of the rival head of the armed forces.

2009-01-20: Democrat Barack Obama becomes president of the United States.

2009-01-02: The armed forces of ශ්‍රී ලංකා « Śrī Lãkā » capture கிளிநொச்சி « Kilinocci », capital of the unrecognized state controlled by the தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள் « Tamizīza Vitutalæp Pulikal ».






2006-12-21: Türkmenistan. Dictator Saparmyrat Nyýazow has died.
2006-09-16: Togo. The opposition has been brought into the government, with prominent dissident Yawovi Agboyibo as prime minister.
2006-06-08: العراق ’al-Cirāq. Serial mass-murderer and aspiring religious tyrant ابو مصعب الزرقاوي ’Abū Musacab ’al-Zarqāŭī has been killed.
2006-05-18: नेपाल Nepāl. Parliament has asserted its right to control the military and determine the royal succession, pending an assembly to write a new constitution.
2006-05-14: Ayisi. A democracy of sorts has been restored with the inauguration of René Préval as president.
2006-04-24: नेपाल Nepāl. Parliament has been recalled and a civilian coalition installed.
2006-04-11: Italia. Mafia leader Bernardo Provenzano has been captured in Sicilia.
2006-03-29: Liberia. Former dictator Charles Taylor has been extradited from exile in Nigeria to the war-crimes tribunal in Sierra Leone.
2006-02-05: កម្ពុជា Kambujā. Opposition leader Sam Raŋsī and parliamentarian Ceam Cannī have been pardoned of bogus convictions.
2006-01-16: Liberia. The state has become a democracy with the inauguration of the winners of the recent general elections, including Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf as president.
2005-11-22: Kenya. Voters have defied the government to defeat a new constitution which failed to devolve presidential powers as originally promised.
2005-11-12: Liberia. Veteran opposition leader Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has been elected president.
2005-10-25: العراق ’al-Cirāq. A constitution has been democratically approved, providing for federalism, a broader franchise, and the election of a permanent government.
2005-09-25: Ulster. The Provisional Irish Republican Army has completely disarmed, according to independent monitors.
2005-08-26: Burundi. The state has become a democracy, with the accession of the government of the Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie, led by Nkurunziza Petero.
2005-08-22: ישראל Jiśra’el. All colonists have been withdrawn from the غزة Ğaz:aĥ Strip.
2005-08-16: Chile. The pro-military elements of the constitution imposed by dictator Augusto Pinochet have been removed.
2005-07-11: Кыргызстан. Acting president Курманбек Бакиев has won a mandate in a largely-democratic election, and will continue in office.
2005-07-09: السودان ’al-Sūdān. John Garang, leader of the southern Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, has become vice president in the recognized government.
2005-07-07: Burundi. All three major parties have agreed to accept the results of an election, which will lead to a change of power, and a partial restoration of majority rule.
2005-06-20: لبنان Lubnān. The alliance of parties opposed to سوريا Sūrīā has won a majority in parliamentary elections.
2005-05-16: الكويت ’al-Kūajt. Women have been given full political rights, though democratic power is limited by hereditary rule, and by religious faith.
2005-04-28: العراق ’al-Cirāq. An elected government has come to office; the شيعى Šīcī and Kurdî populations, long oppressed under the régime of صدام حسين Sad:ām Husajn, have taken the most powerful positions.
2005-04-26: لبنان Lubnān. The last of the military and intelligence forces from سوريا Sūrīā have reportedly withdrawn, possibly clearing the way for free elections.
2005-03-24: Кыргызстан. Autocrat Аскар Акаев has been forced from office, the previous parliament has been reinstated, and opposition leader Феликс Кулов has been released from prison and placed in charge of security.
2005-03-08: Polynésie Française. Pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru has been elected president.
2005-02-28: لبنان Lubnān. The pro-سوريا Sūrīā administration of عمر كرامي Cumar Karāmī has resigned amid popular protest.
2005-02-19: Polynésie Française. Long-serving president Gaston Flosse has lost a no-confidence motion, opening the way for the election of a pro-independence government.
2005-02-18: Togo. Nominal ruler Faure Gnassingbé, presumably speaking for the régime, has agreed to allow new presidential elections within sixty days.
2005-02-08: Palestine. ישראל Jiśra’el and the سلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية Sultaĥ ’al-Ŭatanīaĥ ’al-Filastīnīaĥ have agreed to a truce, though حماس Hamās and الجهاد الإسلامي ’al-Ĝihād ’al-’Islāmī have rejected this for now.
2005-02-05: Togo. Dictator Gnassingbé Éyadéma has died. While his son Faure Gnassingbé has since been made president, the ruling powers will be greatly weakened without Éyadéma himself.
2005-01-23: Україна. Opposition leader Віктор Ющенко has replaced Леонід Кучма as president.
2005-01-23: ހިވެދި Divehi. Opposition activists Ibrahim Ismail and Mohamed Šihab, backed by the exiled ހިވެދި Divehi Democratic Party, have been elected to represent the capital in parliament. A disputed number of other opposition activists have been elected as well.
2005-01-10: فلسطين Filastīn. Moderate محمود عباس Mahmūd Cab:ās (أبو مازن ’Ābū Māzan) has won presidential elections for the سلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية Sultaĥ ’al-Ŭatanīaĥ ’al-Filastīnīaĥ.
2005-01-04: Chile. The highest court has found Augusto Pinochet mentally fit to stand trial.
2004-12-27: Україна. The presidential runoff between Виктор Янукович and Віктор Ющенко has ended in a victory for opposition candidate Ющенко.
2004-12-03: Україна. The supreme court has cancelled the official results for the presidential runoff between Виктор Янукович and Віктор Ющенко, which will now be repeated.
2004-11-18: Uganda. The constitutional court has mandated a multi-party political system, though parties will still be required to register.
2004-10-15: Zimbabhwe. Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai has been acquitted of treason; a second charge of treason remains, but regarding lesser offenses.
2004-10-10: افغانستان ’Afğānestān. A relatively-free election has been held for president; and an opposition-candidate boycott of the results, over minor irregularities, appears unlikely to hold.
2004-09-02: Malaysia. Opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim, imprisoned on bogus charges for political reasons, has been freed after one of his convictions was overturned by the high court.
2004-08-27: Chile. The highest court has upheld the decision to lift immunity from murderous dictator Augusto Pinochet, with the first prosecution for Operación Cóndor.
2004-07-22: К,азак,стан. The main political opposition parties have united to contest the coming parliamentary elections, though the elections are certain to be rigged.
2004-06-03: Venezuela. A petition effort to recall autocratic tribune Hugo Chávez has apparently been deemed successful by the electoral commission.
2004-05-28: Chile. A court has voted to lift immunity from murderous dictator Augusto Pinochet.
2004-05-27: السودان ’Al-Sūdān. A peace agreement has been agreed that will give autonomy to the south, and allow southern participation in the central government, with a referendum in six years on secession.
2004-05-14: 한국 Han Kuk. President 노무현 No Mu Hjĕn, impeached by an opposition parliament largely as a political tactic, has been reinstated.
2004-05-13: भारत B‛ārat. The nationalist, sectarian government of the भारतीय जनता पाटी B‛āratīja Janatā Party has been defeated in general elections; the next government will be led by the भारतीय राषटरीय कांगरेस B‛āratīja Rāstrīja Congress.
2004-05-05: საქართველო Sak'art'velo. The autocrat of აჭარა Ačara, ასლან აბაშიძე Aslan Abašize, has resigned.
2004-03-14: España. The nationalist, crypto-imperialist Partido Popular has lost the general election despite its attempts to blame separatists for the recent mass bombing.
2004-02-29: Ayisi. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, democratically elected but an autocratic thwarter of democracy and user of political violence, has gone into exile.
2003-12-14: العراق ’al-Cirāq. صدام حسين Sad:ām Husajn has been captured.
2003-11-29: Noxçiyçö. Separatist leader Ahmed Zakayev has been granted asylum in Britain.
2003-11-24: 香港 Hèung Góng. Pro-北京 Bĕi Jīng parties have lost considerable ground in local elections, while the 香港民主黨 Hèung Góng Mān Jyú Dóng and its allies have gained significantly.
საქართველო Sak'art'velo. Autocrat ედუარდ შევარდნაძე Eduard Ševardnaze has resigned. He and his For a New საქართველო Sak'art'velo party had officially claimed the first place in patently-rigged parliamentary elections, and awarded second place to the government-allied Revival of აჭარა Ačara leader ასლან აბაშიძე Aslan Abašize. Exit polls had shown opposition parties winning a majority. Peaceful protests and the tacit support for protesters by the military has led to შევარდნაძე Ševardnaze’s departure.
Guatemala. Former military dictator and current parliamentary leader Efraín Ríos Montt has been decisively beaten by two candidates in presidential elections, marked by high turnout.
Malaysia. Long-serving autocrat Mahathir bin Mohamad has officially stepped down, replaced by his deputy Abdullah Badawi.
Liberia. Warlord president Charles Taylor has resigned and left Liberia for exile in Nigeria; and his ally and successor Moses Blah has now been replaced by opposition leader Gyude Bryant.
عمان Cumān. Though the مجلس الشورى Maĝlis ’al-Šūraj remains a weak advisory body with circumscribed scope, it is now elected by all citizens over 21.
Southern Africa. The governments of the Southern African Development Community have agreed to permit involuntary intervention by their fellows in cases of war, atrocity, and failure of democracy; though at present these same governments seem inclined to ignore such transgressions.
Argentina. Congress has ended the amnesty granted to the former military régime. The new government of Néstor Kirchner has begun detaining for trial tens of officers responsible for the Guerra Sucia.
العراق ’Al-Cirāq. The sons and lieutenants of صدام حسين Sad:ām Husajn, قصي صدام حسين Qusaj Sad:ām Husajn and عدي صدام حسين Cudaj Sad:ām Husajn, have been killed avoiding capture by US troops. Powerful aides عبد حامد محمود Cabid Hāmid Mahmūd and على حسن المجيد Calī Hasan ’al-Maĝīd are in custody.
ישראל Jiśra’el. The ישראלי Jiśra’elī government has made a security withdrawal from غزة Ğazzaĥ and بيت لجم Bajt-a Lahm. Earlier, the cabinet endorsed a فلسطينى Filastīnī state, and premier אריאל שרון ’Arī’el Śaroŭn publicly condemned ‘occupation’. The state had agreed to withdrawals from اريحا ’Arīhā and قلقيليا Qalqīljā, and then رام الله Rām ’al-Lah and طولكرم Tūlkarm; while فتح Fatah, حماس Hamās, and الجهاد الإسلامي ’al-Ĝihād ’al-’Islāmī had agreed to a three-month هدنة hudnaĥ; but retaliatory strikes have now ended the هدنة hudnaĥ and the promise of further security transfers.
Türkiye. Parliament has approved, and president Ahmet Necdet Sezer has signed, a set of reforms to increase free expression and curb military influence in politics.
Zimbabhwe. Treason charges against Welshman Ncube and Renson Gasela of the Movement for Democratic Change have been dropped, though those against leader Morgan Tsvangirai remain.
Viti. The supreme court has upheld a constitutional provision requiring opposition representation in the government, a clear provision that has been ignored by prime minister Laisenia Qarase.
Pilipinas. The only portion of the estimated $10 billion that dictator Ferdinand Marcos looted from the state during his reign that has been recovered has been awarded to the state by the supreme court. The holding is now worth $650 million.
الكويت ’Al-Kūajt. The posts of prime minister and crown prince have been separated, and the new prime minister is the de facto ruler صباح الاحمد الصباح Sabāh ’al-’Ahmad ’al-Sabāh, thought to be a reformer.
Burundi. A power-sharing agreement has brought Hutu Domitien Ndayizeye to the presidency, replacing autocrat Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi.
العراق ’Al-Cirāq. The régime of صدام حسين Sad:ām Husajn has ended, as بغداد Bağdād, البصرة ’al-Basraĥ, Mûsil, Kerkûk, and تكريت Tikrīt have all fallen to the coalition.
مصر Misr. Human rights activist سعد الدين إبراهيم Sacad ’al-Dīn ’Ibrāhīm has been acquitted in a second trial. He was originally convicted for taking foreign money and defaming the country.
Sierra Leone. Foday Sankoh, leader of the atrocious Revolutionary United Front, has been put on trial by an international tribunal.
Türkiye. Tayyip Erdoğan, leader of the Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, has become prime minister. Parliament, controlled by the AKP, voted twice to amend the constitution to remove political offenses as disqualifying from public office, which allowed Erdoğan to stand for parliament in a by-election; president Ahmet Necdet Sezer vetoed the change, but, under requirement of a referendum, submitted the second time.
Kenya. Chief justice Bernard Chunga has resigned, ahead of a tribunal that was to investigate allegations of corruption and involvement in torture. Earlier, opposition leader Mwai Kĩbakĩ defeated the ruling Kenya African National Union in presidential elections, and his National Rainbow Coalition won simultaneous parliamentary elections, finally bringing democracy to Kenya. The government has cancelled all illegal transfers of public property to KANU officials and supporters.
ايران ’Īrān. The death sentence against history professor هاشم آغاجرى Hāšem ’Āğāĝarī has been nullified. He was sentenced to death for apostasy and insulting محمد Muhammad, though his actual crime seems to have been questioning clerical power.
Pilipinas. Citizens who work overseas and hold single citizenship will be allowed to vote in elections, enfranchising several million.
ايران ’Īrān. Prominent dissident cleric حسين على منتظرى Husajn Calī Montaðerī, under house arrest, has been released.
Côte d’Ivoire. A peace deal has been signed to reintegrate the state. A northern مسلم muslim, Seydou Diarra, will become prime minister, and assume some of the powers of president Laurent Gbagbo.
中國 Zhōng Guó. Dissident Fang Jue has been released, though only into exile.
Nederland. The Lijst Pim Fortuyn, which benefitted from an unwarranted sympathy vote after the assassination of Fortuyn and helped form a conservative government, collapsed, bringing down the government and forcing new elections. The LPF suffered a huge loss and the liberal Partij van de Arbeid nearly doubled its seats, narrowly losing to the Christelijk Democratisch Appel, which is expected to lead a centrist coalition.
Россия. Journalist Григорий Пасько has been released early from prison to house arrest. He was sentenced to four years for treason; his crime was revealing the navy’s disposal of nuclear waste at sea.
United States. Illinois provincial governor George Ryan has commuted the death sentences of the last 167 condemned prisoners in Illinois, and pardoned four whom he deemed wrongly convicted.
Perú. The judiciary has annulled four anti-terrorist laws decreed by Alberto Fujimori at the height of his autocracy, which is expected to lead to retrials for hundreds of prisoners.
中國 Zhōng Guó. Democracy Party leader 徐文立 Xú Wén Lì has been released from prison, though on condition of exile. Earlier, the United Nations was invited to resume human-rights investigations.
Madagasikara. Parliamentary elections have been won by the party of president Marc Ravalomanana, and the party of former strongman Didier Ratsiraka has been reduced to negligible strength. Earlier, the impasse and civil war was finally resolved, as Ratsiraka fled and Ravalomanana, who won the presidential election, took control of the last provinces.
United States. Segregation apologist Trent Lott has been forced out as leader of the senate following his praise for the segregationist candidacy of Strom Thurmond.
한국 Han Kuk. Human-rights lawyer 노무현 No Mu Hjĕn has won the presidential election, giving the Grand National Party a second straight presidential defeat.
Türkiye. The state of emergency, granting police special powers, has been ended in Kurdistan.
ايران ’Īrān. حسين ميرمحمد صادقي Husajn Mīrmuhammad Sādeqī, spokesperson for the judiciary, has resigned in protest at the death sentence of هاشم آغاجرى Hāšem ’Āğāĝarī. Student protests are intensifying, despite pressure from the بسيج Basīĝ. Earlier, the former interior minister عبدالله نورى Cabd’ullah Nūrī, jailed for various infractions against the ruling جمهورى اسلامى Ĝumhūrī ’Islāmī, was pardoned, following the death of his brother عليرضا نورى Calīredā Nūrī, who was essentially نورى Nūrī’s surrogate in politics. نورى Nūrī is the leading reformist politician after elected president محمد خاتمى Muhammad Xātamī.
KaNgwane. Ruling monarch Mswati is being defied by the judicial system. Six judges have resigned and lawyers have gone on strike to protest royal arrogation of power over the judiciary. The chief catalyst was a case accusing Mswati of kidnapping his next designated bride; though the formal engagement of the woman to Mswati, roughly equivalent to marriage, seems to have ended the legal challenge. Earlier, opposition leader Mario Masuku, convicted and imprisoned for a year for treason for supposedly calling for the overthrow of Mswati, was freed following a decision that his words had been misinterpreted.
ישראל Jiśra’el. חיפה Hajpah mayor and peace advocate עמרם מצנע Camram Misnac has won the leadership of the עבודה Caboŭdah Party, which will provide voters a genuine alternative to the intransigent policies of אריאל שרון ’Arī’el Śaroŭn and בנימין נתניהו Binjamīn Netanjahū.
Nigeria. President Olusegun Obasanjo had altered a law so that it effectively prohibited new parties from contesting 2003 elections; but a suit brought by those parties, challenging all but the most basic requirements, has been successful, and the government has been ordered to register the parties.
ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lãkā. The two warring sides have agreed to a framework for further negotiations with surprising speed, and the தமிழ் Tamiz side has pledged to focus on politics and to support pluralism in Īzam.
البحرين ’Al-Bahrajn. Parliamentary elections have been held, with significant participation despite شيعى šīcī calls for a boycott over the equal power granted an appointed council. Women have now participated as voters and candidates in the last three elections, though none has been elected. Earlier, local elections were held with strong participation. The citizenry had previously been allowed to vote in a referendum on a national charter providing for a partially-elected legislature and an independent judiciary, and voted overwhelmingly in favor. The امير ’amīr, حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة Hamad bin Cīsaj ’āl Xalīfaĥ, has outdistanced expectations and declared a constitutional monarchy, though for the present is retaining ultimate power. Two emergency laws, in place for five and for twenty-five years, have been discarded.
भारत B‛ārat. Elections in Kašmīr have been freer than ever, and have led to a defeat for the long-ruling party.
تونس Tūnis. Dissident and opposition-party leader حمة همامي Hammaĥ Hammāmī has been released from prison, and has vowed to resume his political activities.
臺灣 Tai5 Oan1. President 陳水扁 Tan5 Chui2 Pin2 has begun openly advocating independence for the first time since his election. That election represented a transfer of power from the 國民黨 Guó Mín Dăng, and also courageous defiance by a small democracy of the world’s largest dominion, the Communist Party of 中國 Zhōng Guó, whose clumsy threats have made its illiberality even more apparent. The 國民黨 Guó Mín Dăng has also lost its majority in parliament, to the Democratic Progressive Party of 陳 Tan5.
Angola. The military wing of UNITA has officially disbanded, though soldiers may remain in arms in the bush. Earlier, Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA and primary instigator of the war in Angola, was killed in combat, and his apparent successor, Paulo Lukamba Gato, was arrested. UNITA and the government then signed a peace accord which has raised hopes of a permanent end to the war.
Türkiye. Peacetime execution has been abolished, though it is not clear if that provision will apply to Ebdella Ocalan. Other reforms have extended cultural rights for the Kurds.
Argentina. A judge has ordered the arrest of former military ruler Leopoldo Galtieri and more than thirty other officers, after finding their amnesty unconstitutional.
Côte d’Ivoire. The citizenship of opposition leader Alassane Ouattara has finally been recognized.
افغانستان ’Afğānestān. The لوى جرگه Loja Ĝirga just ended, while not purely democratic, will further establish the emerging constitutional order. حامد کرزي Hāmid Karzaī has been elected president.
Lesotho. International observers have declared the recent election free and fair.
Sierra Leone. An election overseen by the United Nations appears to have gone off democratically, returning Ahmad Tejan Kabbah to office as president.
Mali. Amadou Toumani Toure, who overthrew long-ruling dictator Moussa Traore and installed a democracy, has been elected president himself ten years later, defeating ruling-coalition candidate Soumaila Cisse. Cisse had placed in the a runoff by taking nearly all of the votes in many districts, despite the presence of twenty-three other candidates. His campaign manager is married to the interior minister, who oversaw the ballot.
Mяanmā. Opposition leader ’Oŋ Ç‛an: Çu Kяañ has been released from house arrest. Expectations for secret negotiations between the State Council and Çu have been bolstered by the crackdown on corruption in the military and on the family of former military ruler Ne Ŭin.
Cuba. Dissident Vladimiro Roca has been released after five years in prison.
Togo. Opposition leader Yawovi Agboyibo, jailed for nine months for supposedly libelling the prime minister, has been released.
ايران ’Īrān. Member of Parliament حسين Husajn Loqmanian has been pardoned; he was jailed for ten months for insulting the judiciary, the first parliamentarian jailed since the revolution. Four dissidents have been given clemency relating to their participation in the Berlin conference. And dissident ’Ezat’ollah Sahabī has reportedly been released, as have Reza Rais-Tussī and journalist Said Madanī, released on bail.
ישראל Jiśra’el. Reservists, including officers, are refusing to serve their mandatory duty in occupied فلسطين Filastīn; though the supreme court has denied them the right and upheld their imprisonment.
Australia. One Nation Party founder Pauline Hanson has resigned as party leader.
中國 Zhōng Guó. Expatriate dissident Wang Ce has been released early from prison; he had been jailed for assisting Democracy Party activist Wang You Cai, who remains in prison. Musician Ngawang Choephel, exiled from Bod and arrested and imprisoned as a spy upon visiting Bod, has also been released early.
افغانستان ’Afğānestān. The nearly-complete rout of the طالبان Tālibān has provided most of the country with basic freedoms that most of the world already enjoys. Interim premier حامد کرزي Hāmid Karzaī has unexpectedly signed the Declaration of Essential Rights for افغانى ’Afğānī Women, which promises “equality between men and women, equal protection under the law, institutional education in all disciplines, freedom of movement, freedom of speech and political participation and the right to wear or not wear the burqa or scarf.”
France. Parliament has passed premier Lionel Jospin’s autonomy plan for Corsica, which could serve as a model for the dismantling of the national empire.
United States. The city of Portland has refused cooperation with federal requests to local authorities to interview five thousand immigrants and non-citizens not suspected of crimes, calling it a violation of several provincial laws.
Kosova. General elections have been held for an assembly with limited power which will most closely represent the majoritarian will; a majority of its delegates will support independence.
Guinée-Conakry. Opposition leader Alpha Conde has taken his parliamentary seat, apparently without opposition, despite being banned from politics due to an arrest for sedition during the 1998 presidential election.
Malaysia. The chief justice has ruled that an appeal by six jailed Reformasi activists can call into question the validity of the Internal Security Act, under which the activists are being held. The six were arrested for sedition while planning a protest against the government of Mahathir bin Mohamad.
الجزائر ’al-Ĝaza’īr. A government report blamed the gendarmes for initiating the violence in riots taking place in Kabilie recently, which had begun as peaceful protests culminating in a demonstration by one million in the capital.
Bolivia. Former military dictator Hugo Bánzer has resigned the presidency for medical reasons.
Perú. The transition to democracy is complete, with the inauguration of opposition leader Alejandro Toledo as president. Alberto Fujimori had been removed from office, following his opponents’ capture of the legislature and his own subsequent resignation attempt.
The Gambia. Autocrat Yahya Jammeh has rescinded a ban on political parties, including the ruling party he supplanted in 1994.
Papua-Nugini. The government and Bougainville secessionists have agreed to a plan for autonomy and a referendum on independence.
Србија. Слободан Милошевић has been overthrown by a popular uprising following his defeat in the presidential election for Југославија by Војислав Коштуница of Демократска Опозиција Србије. Parliamentary elections in Србија have now been won by ДОС also, with opposition leader Зоран Ђинђић becoming prime minister. The new government has arrested Милошевић, and deported him for trial to the international tribunal.
ايران ’Īrān. Reformist tribune محمد خاتمى Muhammad Xātamī has been re-elected by a larger landslide than his initial election four years ago, following massive voter turnout, dealing yet another blow to the repressive جمهورى اسلامى Ĝumhūrī ’Islāmī. Earlier, despite having many of their strongest candidates disqualified, the reformist element dominated parliamentary elections.


2007-01-01: Soomaaliya. After months of lying about its presence in Soomaaliya, ኢትዮጵያ ’It-jopija has conquered the southern half, displacing an unelected but popular administration which had brought stability and a reduction in corruption with a network of warlords, also unelected and extremely unpopular.
2006-12-04: Viti. The military has taken control, overthrowing an illiberal but majoritarian government.
2006-09-19: เมืองไทย Miāŋdæj. The military has overthrown the elected government while the prime minister, ทักษิณ ชินวัตร Daksin Jinaŭatra, was out of the country.
2006-08-02: Україна. Виктор Янукович, intended beneficiary of electoral fraud in the last presidential election, is set to become prime minister and the most powerful government figure under a coalition deal with defectors from the reform coalition.
2006-05-12: Indonesia. Corruption charges against former military dictator Suharto have been dropped on health grounds, after being dragged out on similar grounds.
2006-04-19: नेपाल Nepāl. King ज्ञनेन्द्र Jñanendra has issued shoot-on-sight orders to prevent opposition rallies; rallies have continued despite.
2006-03-04: Noxçiyçö. Brutal warlord Ramzan Kadyrov has been confirmed as prime minister of Россия’s puppet provincial government.
2006-03-03: Zambia. Thirteen political parties have been banned, including the key opposition party Forum for Democracy and Development.
2006-02-16: Ayisi. René Préval has been declared the outright winner in the first round of a presidential poll, based largely on rioting committed by his supporters, who alleged fraud simply because their candidate did worse in later returns than in earlier returns.
فلسطين Filastīn. حماس Hamās has won parliamentary elections, which ironically brings a terrorist group to power while demonstrating the commitment of the سلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية Sultaĥ ’al-Ŭatanīaĥ ’al-Filastīnīaĥ to the practice of democracy.
2005-12-24: مصر Misr. Opposition leader أيمن نور ’Ajman Nūr, runner-up in the recent presidential election, has been imprisoned on dubious charges of fraud.
2005-12-05: Venezuela. A well-justified opposition boycott of the parliamentary election has resulted in a national assembly completely without opposition to Hugo Chávez.
2005-11-27: Kenya. Opposition rallies have been banned, in response to opposition calls for new elections.
2004-11-26: Azǝrbaycan. Protests against the recent fraudulent election have been forcibly suppressed.
2005-11-18: ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lãkā. සිංහල Sĩhala chauvinist Mahinda Rājapakse of the imperialist Freedom Alliance has been elected president.
2005-11-14: Uganda. Opposition leader Kizza Besigye has been arrested and charged with treason and rape.
2005-06-25: ايران ’Īrān. Arch-theocrat محمود احمدى نژاد Mehmūd ’Ahmedī Nežād has been declared the victor of a presidential election.
2005-06-18: ايران ’Īrān. The last (albeit weak) element of the government structure not in the hands of religious conservatives, the presidency, will now be held by a conservative as well, after a runoff between اكبر هاشمى رفسنجانى ’Akbar Hāšemī Rafsanĝānī and محمود احمدى نژاد Mehmūd ’Ahmedī Nežād.
2005-05-13: O'zbekiston. Many hundreds of protesters have been massacred by government troops after an uprising in Andijon.
2005-04-26: Togo. Faure Gnassingbé, candidate of the long-ruling Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, has been declared the provisional winner of a fraudulent election.
2005-03-08: Noxçiyçö. Elected president Aslan Mashadov has been assassinated by Россия.
2005-02-14: لبنان Lubnān. رفيق الحيري Rafīq ’al-Harīrī, who resigned as prime minister in opposition to the continued control of لبنان Lubnān by سوريا Sūrīā, has been assassinated by a bomb, which also killed several others and wounded tens more.
2005-02-03: កម្ពុជា Kambujā. Opposition leader Sam Raŋsī, facing charges of defamation against the government, has been stripped of his parliamentary immunity, and has fled the country. Two other colleagues have also been implicated.
2005-02-01: नेपाल Nepāl. King ज्ञनेन्द्र Jñanendra has dismissed the latest government, which was largely a representation of popular support, and placed its members under house arrest. A state of emergency has been introduced, suspending civil liberties.
2004-11-22: Україна. Official results for the presidential runoff between Виктор Янукович and Віктор Ющенко have shown a victory for Янукович, the candidate supported by sitting president Леонід Кучма. The results strongly contradict independent exit polls and depend on a supposed 96% turnout in pro-Янукович areas.
2004-11-03: United States. The previously-minority government of George W. Bush has been returned to office with a majority mandate, and the Republican Party has strengthened its control of Congress.
2004-10-22: Azǝrbaycan. Seven members of the opposition group Müsavat have been imprisoned for their roles in protests against the fraudulent election of İlham Əliyev. Rauf Arifoğlu, Arif Hacılı, Pǝnah Hüseyn, Sǝrdar Cǝlaloğlu, İbrahim İbrahimli, İqbal Ağazadǝ, and Etimad Əsǝdov received sentences from 2.5 to 5 years.
2004-10-19: Mяanmā. Prime minister K‛in Ñunt, a relative reformer, was removed in a power struggle with leading juntist T‛an Ç‛ŭe.
2004-10-17: Беларусь. A fixed referendum has eliminated term limits for the presidency, allowing autocrat Аляксандар Лукашэнка to continue in office indefinitely.
2004-09-08: Noxçiyçö. Россия has placed a multimillion-dollar bounty on the freely elected president of Noxçiyçö, Aslan Mashadov, without evidence of any involvement in the terrorist acts of which he is accused.
2004-08-29: Noxçiyçö. Россия has fixed yet another election, giving the presidency to Владимир Путин’s choice, interior minister Alu Alhanov.
2004-08-16: Venezuela. A recall against autocrat Hugo Chávez has officially been ruled a failure.
2004-08-13: ހިވެދި Divehi. Opposition demonstrations for democracy and civil liberties have been answered with a state of emergency.
2004-05-17: العراق ’al-Cirāq. عز الدين سليم Caz ’al-Dīn Salīm, current president of the مجلس الحكم Maĝlis ’al-Hukm, has been assassinated.
2004-04-11: پاکستان Pākistān. Opposition coordinator جاويد هاشمى Ĝāŭejd Hāšmī has been sentenced to seven years in prison for various sedition charges, relating directly to his opposition to autocrat پرويز مشرف Perŭejz Mušaraf.
2004-04-03: ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lãkā. The imperialist Freedom Alliance of president Cãdrikā Kumāratũgē has won early parliamentary elections and will govern in coalition.
2004-03-31: السودان ’Al-Sūdān. Former ruler de facto حسن الترابى Hasan ’al-Turābī has been arrested by the government of his rival, current autocrat عمر حسن البشير Cumar Hasan ’al-Bašīr, along with other senior members of the Popular Congress Party, on allegations of coup involvement.
2004-03-14: Россия. Presidential elections held under biased conditions have led to the reelection of president Владимир Путин. State-controlled media, including all available television, covered only Путин; and bribes were offered to voters to increase turnout to avoid invalidation.
2004-03-03: Venezuela. Opponents of autocrat Hugo Chávez have collected enough signatures to force a referendum on his rule, but a government board has rejected a third of them, denying the referendum.
2004-02-22: ايران ’Īrān. Parliamentary elections have proceeded without the effective participation of reformist candidates, most of them disqualified, and conservatives have predictably won the poll.
2004-02-07: ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lãkā. President Cãdrikā Kumāratũgē has dissolved parliament four years early, to undermine her elected rival, prime minister Ranil Ŭickremesing‛e, and force her ultranationalist agenda on the peace process.
2004-01-11: ايران ’Īrān. The appointed Guardian Council has rejected the candidacy of large numbers of reformist parliamentary candidates, including many of the most prominent MPs.
2003-12-31: پاکستان Pākistān. In exchange for a promise to stand down as military chief ― in a year ― dictator پرويز مشرف Perŭejz Mušaraf has been granted even more powers by parliament.
2003-12-28: Србија. The rightist Српска Радикална Странка of Војислав Шешељ has placed first in parliamentary elections, though it is not expected to govern.
2003-12-21: Kenya. Former autocrat Daniel arap Moi will be exempted from prosecution for the corruption during his reign.
2003-12-08: Россия. Elections held under serious media manipulation by the government of Владимир Путин have produced results strongly favoring the government, with all proportional-representation seats going to illiberal parties: the Путинist Единая Россия, the Сталинist Коммунистическая Партия, the fascist Либерально-Демократическая Партия, and the pro-Путин neo-Сталинist Родина. The liberal Яблоко has been shut out of proportional representation altogether.
2003-11-28: Northern Ireland. Elections have been won the Democratic Unionist Party of Ian Paisley, dedicated to preservation of colonial rule and opposed to the Good Friday agreement for devolution.
2003-11-24: Hrvatska. The nationalist party Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica has won parliamentary elections and will lead the next government.
موريتانيا Mūrītānīā. A rigged election has been held, with junta chief معاوية ولد سيد احمد الطايع Macāŭjaĥ Ŭuld Sīd ’Ahmad ’al-Tājac claiming two-thirds of the vote. The leading opposition candidate, محمد خونا ولد هيدالا Muhammad Xūnā Ŭuld Hajdālā, also a former junta chief, was arrested and then freed shortly before the vote, and arrested again immediately after, charged with plotting a coup.
ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lãkā. President Cãdrikā Kumāratũgē has suspended parliament, removed three ministers, and declared a state of emergency while the prime minister Ranil Ŭickremesing‛e, whose party opposes Kumāratũgē’s, was out of the country. Her apparent motive was to halt the peace process and prevent autonomy for the தமிழ் Tamiz population, the armed faction of which has just offered its own autonomy plan.
پاکستان Pākistān. Opposition leader محمود جاويد هاشمى Mahmūd Ĝāŭejd Hāšimī of the Alliance to Restore Democracy has been arrested.
العراق ’Al-Cirāq. Staff for the International Committee of the Red Cross and native police as well as US personnel have been killed in coordinated attacks. Previously, عقيلة الهاشمي Caqīlaĥ ’al-Hāšimī of the مجلس الحكم Maĝlis ’al-Hukm was assassinated, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and special envoy to العراق ’al-Cirāq Sergio Vieira de Mello and a number of UN personnel were killed in a suicide attack on the UN headquarters in بغداد Bağdād, and another attack killed tens of worshippers and the leading clerical politician, محمد باقر الحكيم Muhammad Bāqr ’al-Hakīm.
Die Schweiz. The rightist, anti-immigrant Schweizerische Volkspartei has become the largest faction in the federal parliament.
A Guiné-Bissau. The elected president, Kumba Yalá, has been overthrown by the army.
Venezuela. A collection of three million signatures to call a referendum on the presidency of Hugo Chávez has been rejected by the high court because the signatures were collected before the referendum could legally be held ― though that time has arrived.
Rwanda. Autocrat Kagame Paul has claimed 94.3% of the presidential vote, after running an election that was not remotely fair.
Azǝrbaycan. Autocrat Heydǝr Əliyev has named his son İlham as prime minister, as expected, after pushing through a referendum which will make his appointed prime minister his successor. He had already extended his term through referendum. Earlier, the ruling party maintained firm control in dubious parliamentary elections.
Gabon. The constitution has been changed to allow Omar Bongo an unlimited tenure in office.
São Tomé e Príncipe. The elected government was temporarily overthrown by soldiers led by military-academy commandant Fernando Pereira; some concessions were made in a deal to get them to restore democracy.
Guatemala. The constitutional court, reversing numerous earlier rulings, has accepted the presidential candidacy of former military dictator Efraín Ríos Montt. He essentially runs the country through the ruling Frente Republicano Guatemalteco, which has nominated him despite a constitutional ban on coup participants in the presidency.
الكويت ’Al-Kūajt. Reformers have lost nearly all their representation in parliament, with conservatives and ’Islāmists dominating elections restricted, as usual, to native males.
中國 Zhōng Guó. भारत B‛ārat has recognized the sovereignty of 中國 Zhōng Guó over Bod.
Тоҷикистон. Эмомали Раҳмонов will be allowed to stay in power until 2020 under a recently-approved legal change.
Mяanmā. Opposition leader ’Oŋ Ç‛an: Çu Kяañ has been detained, the offices of the National League for Democracy have been blockaded or closed, leading activists are under house arrest, and ten NLD activists have been imprisoned for organizing and educational efforts. And on the day before a semester begins, the universities have been closed. Violent clashes between government and opposition supporters are apparently the subject of a government cover-up.
Zimbabhwe. A national strike has been banned, opposition protests suppressed, and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai arrested.
Togo. Gilchrist Olympio, probable real winner of the last presidential election, has been renominated by the largest opposition, the Union des Forces du Changement, to oppose dictator Gnassingbé Éyadéma, but has been disqualified by a residency requirement. The election, fraudulent of course, has proceeded, with Éyadéma expected to claim a large victory.
Perú. For the second time, Alejandro Toledo has declared a state of emergency, suspending civil liberties to deal with a political situation.
Հայաստան Hajastan. Incumbent president Ռոբերտ Քոչարյան Řobert K'oč'arjan has claimed defeat of challenger Stepan Demirčjan in an election deemed flawed by international observers, including the charge of ballot-stuffing. The process has been repeated in parliamentary elections.
Acheh. Indonesia has declared martial law and invaded Acheh, in an attempt to force a surrender of any claim to sovereignty.
Cuba. Many tens of dissidents have been arrested recently, accused of subversive activities. Over thirty have been sentenced to prison, including several terms over twenty years.
Viêt Nam. Eight individuals have been given long prison sentences for contact with US-based organizations, and for organizing a mass emigration of Montagnards.
Zimbabhwe. The opposition mayor of Harare, Elias Mudzuri, has been removed by the central government of Robert Mugabe. Several states have opposed the extension of sanctions against Zimbabhwe and the régime of Mugabe, including travel bans and its suspension from the Commonwealth, at a time when opposition leaders Morgan Tsvangirai and Welshman Ncube are on trial for treason. The EU has extended sanctions, but with a travel exemption for Mugabe to a conference in France; the Commonwealth has also extended sanctions against the advice of Nigeria and South Africa. The opposition trial has begun with heavy restrictions on public and press attendence. Mudzuri had earlier been arrested for holding a public meeting without police authority; several other officials have also been arrested. The central government is planning to appoint governors for the two largest cities, Harare and Bulawayo, both of which have elected opposition administrations. Previously, the government staged a series of fraudulent elections, at all levels, including one in which Mugabe was supposed to have defeated Tsvangirai for the presidency. Party-loyalty tests have been required for all public employees, including in education and medicine, and even for receipt of food aid. The régime has also recently instituted an indoctrination and training requirement for college students.
Nigeria. While the election defeat of Muhammadu Buhari was desirable, and Olusegun Obasanjo and the People’s Democratic Party probably had majority support in the country, obvious fraud has tainted the victory.
Россия. A liberal political leader, Сергей Юшенков, has been assassinated. He had been leading an effort to demonstrate state-security responsibility for bombings blamed on Noxçiy terrorists and used as a pretext for reinvasion of Noxçiyçö. Earlier, a rigged referendum in Noxçiyçö was held, to provide a bogus democratic legitimacy to perpetual inclusion in the empire.
Centrafrique. Elected president Ange-Félix Patassé has been deposed by forces loyal to military commander François Bozizé, who now control most of the country.
Liechtenstein. Crown Prince Hans Adam II has been granted almost complete control of government in a referendum.
Србија. Prime minister Зоран Ђинђић, the reformer who engineered the fall of Слободан Милошевић, has been assassinated.
ايران ’Īrān. Local elections have been dominated by conservatives, amid low turnout, showing a waning enthusiasm for the powerless democratic process.
Venezuela. Opposition leader Carlos Fernández has been arrested for treason, a second opposition leader, Carlos Ortega, is under threat of arrest for treason, and four opposition supporters have been found executed. Ortega has since been granted asylum in Costa Rica.
Malaŵi. A protest against a third term for president Bakili Muluzi has been banned.
A Guiné-Bissau. Numerous members of the opposition (and former ruling) Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde have been arrested, along with João Vaz Mané of the Liga Guineense dos Direitos Humanos, as parliamentary elections approach.
Cyprus. Longtime Κύπρος president Γλαύκος Κληρίδης has been defeated in elections by Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος, who represented fewer concessions to the Türkler of Kıbrıs.
中國 Zhōng Guó. Dissident and former political prisoner 王炳章 Wáng Bing Zhang, based in the US, has been sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of spying and terrorism, after possibly being abducted from Viêt Nam.
ישראל Jiśra’el. The liberal side of ישראלי Jiśra’elī politics has suffered a huge loss in parliamentary elections, with עבודה Caboŭdah and מרץ Meres losing a combined 10 seats, and the rightist ליכוד Līkūd gaining 19 seats. The only mitigation was the large increase in seats for the centrist ― but secular ― שינוי Śīnūī.
Uganda. The defense minister, Amama Mbabazi, had recently lost his parliamentary seat in a unanimous supreme-court ruling that his election was secured through army and government harrassment, intimidation, and torture; but he has been restored following the withdrawal of his opponent before a by-election.
Jabuuti - Soomaaliya. Strongman Ismaaciil Cumar Geele and his Union for a Presidential Majority have claimed not only the presidency but a majority in all five constituencies and therefore every seat in parliament.
Türkmenistan. Government opponent Boris Şyhmuradov, a former minister who had been living in exile, has been captured and charged with the attempted murder of dictator Saparmyrad Niÿazov, and imprisoned for life. Fifteen others are in detention and three exiled government opponents, former officials Nurmuhamet Hanamov, Hudaÿberdi Orazov, and Imamberdi Yklymov, are also being blamed. The supposed assassination attempt is itself unlikely.
ايران ’Īrān. Prominent opposition parliamentarian احمد بورقانى ’Ahmad Boŭrqānī has been charged with assisting illegal polling; pollster and reformist عباس عبدى Cabbās Cabdī has confessed for his polling activities, under probable duress. At least six students have been arrested protesting the death sentence against history professor هاشم آغاجرى Hāšem ’Āğāĝarī.
Guinea Ecuatorial. An election which was to be held under military supervision and without a secret ballot has been boycotted by all opposition, the chief leader of which, Placido Mico, is imprisoned. Dictator Obiang Nguema claimed to win the last election with 99% of the vote.
Zimbabhwe. Twelve officials from the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions, including leader Wellington Chibebe, have been arrested for organizing a general strike.
ישראל Jiśra’el. فلسطينى Filastīnī activist مروان برغوتي Marŭān Barğūtī has been placed in solitary confinement for giving an interview from prison.
پاکستان Pākistān. The new prime minister is مير ظفرالله جمالى Mīr Ðafar’ullah Ĝamālī, a supporter of military dictator پرويز مشرف Perŭejz Mušaraf. پرويز Perŭejz has recently run a standard-issue staged referendum to extend his reign; he also created a security council headed by himself which will give him the power to remove future governments. General elections held under the new system, and without the leaders of the major political parties, both former premiers, have led to an unfortunate showing both for fundamentalists and for the pro-پرويز Perŭejz پاکستان مسلم ليگ - قائد Pākistān Muslim League - Qā’īd; the two have formed a coalition government in بلوچستان Balūčistān, and the fundamentalist party, متحده مجلس عمل Muttahidah Maĝlis-e Camal, has formed the government in the North-West Frontier Province.
Ecuador. Presidential elections have been held to replace the deposed Jamil Mahuad; but the winner, Lucio Gutiérrez, helped overthrow Mahuad.
Österreich. The rightist majority whose government recently collapsed has slightly increased its size in general elections. While there was a significant shift of that majority to the Österreichische Volkspartei of kanzler Wolfgang Schüssel from the ultranationalist Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs of Jörg Haider, that was accomplished by ÖVP’s adoption of much of the FPÖ’s agenda.
Venezuela. President Hugo Chávez has seized control of the Caracas police from the mayor, who opposes him.
KaNgwane. After sending his attorney-general Phesheya Dlamini to interfere in a legal case regarding his abduction of his latest bride, autocratic monarch Mswati is now having Dlamini prosecuted for the very act, on charges of sedition.
United States. The Republican Party of George Bush has again secured control of the entire federal apparatus, through the latest elections. This will give an almost-unchecked power to Bush to pursue his hard conservative policies.
Zimbabhwe. Opposition parliamentarian and spokesperson Learnmore Jongwe has died suspiciously in prison, after turning himself in to face murder charges against his wife.
Britain. The local assembly in Northern Ireland has been suspended after a spying scandal implicated representatives of Sinn Féin, the largest nationalist party.
नेपाल Nepāl. The theoretically-constitutional monarch has dismissed the parliamentary government and assumed executive powers himself, and also postponed elections, failure to hold which had served as his rationalization for the dismissal. He has since appointed a new prime minister.
المغرب الاقصى ’al-Mağrib ’al-’Aqsaj. Islamists have made dramatic gains in elections for a consultative assembly.
España. Baltasar Garzón, ordinarily a foe of dominion, has suspended for three years the Euskal nationalist party Batasuna, for alleged links to the violent separatist group Euskadi ta Askatasuna. Mainstream politicians on both sides of español politics have voted in parliament to pursue an indefinite ban, while minor parties are abstaining or voting against.
سوريا Sūrīā. After the resumption of meetings of the National Dialogue Forum, leader and parliamentarian رياض سيف Rīād Sajf has been arrested. Also arrested recently have been parliamentarian مأمون الحمصي Mā’mūn ’al-Humsī and Communist Party leader رياض الترك Rīād ’al-Turk, the latter having already spent seventeen years in prison, along with human-rights activists كمال اللبواني Kamāl ’al-Labŭānī, حبيب صالح Habīb Sāleh, عارف دليلة Cārif Dalīlaĥ, حسن سعدون Hasan Sacadūn and وليد البني Ŭalīd ’al-Bunnī. Journalist نزار نيوف Nizār Najūf, released in May after nine years in prison, is being sued both in سوريا Sūrīā and in France for his dissident activities, the former suit amounting to criminal charges. رياض سيف Rīād Sajf and مأمون الحمصي Mā’mūn ’al-Humsī have been sentenced to five years, and حبيب صالح Habīb Sāleh to three years; رياض الترك Rīād ’al-Turk was sentenced to a total of eleven and a half years, but the sentence was commuted to thirty months after he confessed to being critical of the government.
France. The top two candidates in the recent presidential election were the conservative candidate Jacques Chirac and the ultraconservative candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen, though Chirac has been reelected with a large majority in the runoff. And now parliamentary elections have also shown a solid shift to the right.
Liberia. Strongman Charles Taylor has banned political activity just as opposition leader Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf returned to Liberia to begin campaigning against him.
Masiwa. Elections for the central-government presidency are proceeding, despite the boycott of the two main opposition candidates and Nzwani.
中國 Zhōng Guó. The government executed more persons in four months last year than the rest of the world in the previous three years.
ישראל Jiśra’el. The انتفاضة ’Intifād is developing into a full-scale war, with each side contributing to the escalation.
تونس Tūnis. Dissident حمة همامي Hammaĥ Hammāmī and two colleagues, sentenced in absentia for belonging to an illegal opposition group, surrendered to the court after four years, had their sentences confirmed in the absence of lawyers, and were apparently beaten. Earlier, مختار يحياوي Muxtār Jahjāŭī, noted as one of the few independent judges, was removed for openly criticizing the lack of independence for the judiciary.
Nigeria. The government has broken a general strike by finding it illegal, arresting leader Adams Oshiomhole and others, charging them with “unlawful assembly and inciting the general public against the government”.
Zimbabhwe. Robert Mugabe and the ZANU-PF are intensifying their efforts to entrench the current dictatorship. Laws have been passed, one without a vote count, to restrict opposition activities and threaten severe penalties for crossing the state. Armed forces chief Vitalis Zvinavashe has made statements which have been interpreted as denying allegiance of the military to any opposition leader elected. Police have rounded up MDC activists, and broken up an opposition rally and a protest by journalists. Ruling party militants have beaten MDC activists and burned the MDC office in Kwekwe. Earlier, opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was arrested twice in three days for possession of a two-way radio; he faces a possible two-year sentence.
中國 Zhōng Guó. Two dissidents and Democracy Party activists, Lu Xin Hua and Wang Jin Bo, have been imprisoned for criticizing the government through internet publications.
Uganda. The police have used deadly force to block a protest rally by the opposition Uganda People’s Congress, and arrested leader James Rwanyarare.
Zambia. A disputed presidential poll has gone to the ruling Movement for Multiparty Democracy with a narrow plurality.
ايران ’Īrān. Member of Parliament حسين Husajn Loqmanian was jailed for ten months for insulting the judiciary, the first parliamentarian jailed since the revolution. He has since been pardoned. The secretary of the cabinet, reformer عبدالله Cabd’ullah Ramazanzadeh, has been sentenced to six months in prison for criticizing the جمهورى اسلامى Ĝumhūrī ’Islāmī. The جمهورى اسلامى Ĝumhūrī ’Islāmī has begun a closed trial of thirty-one prominent members of the نهضت آزادى ايران Nehdate ’Āzādī ’Īrān; forty-two were arrested immediately before the most recent presidential elections. Another closed trial for apostasy has begun, mostly of members of the National Religious Alliance.
United States. George Bush has announced that non-citizens accused of terrorist activities will be tried in a military court, subject to rules defined by himself and the Secretary of Defense.
Gambia. Yahya Jammeh, coup leader and autocrat, has been declared the winner in a presidential poll endorsed by international monitors.
’Er-t-rā. ’Isajas- ’Afeŭer-ki and his increasingly-illiberal régime have suspended the independent press and arrested six leading reformers, citing threats to national unity and interest. Detentions recently have also included three thousand students critical of the régime, held for a month in a village, with twenty being held in isolation.
لبنان Lubnān. Christian opponents of rule by سوريا Sūrīā have been rounded up in a raid by the army, specifically targeting supporters of the Christian patriarch.
الجزائر ’Al-Ĝaza’īr. Amazigh protesters hoping to march in the capital have been stopped on its outskirts, and have staged a sitting protest. Police for the military government have reportedly sanctioned ethnic vigilantism against Amazigh protesters; protests have been banned following a march of one million which led ultimately to riots.
Chile. Augusto Pinochet has been found by a court unable to stand trial for health and mental reasons. Issues of humanitarian concern and due process offer more consideration than he ever provided to his enemies, and will set an unfortunate precedent for other tyrants.
Malaysia. Ezam Mohd Noor, youth leader of the Parti Keadilan Nasional and prominent Reformasi activist, has been arrested for sedition while planning a protest against the government of Mahathir bin Mohamad. Earlier, Reformasi principal Anwar Ibrahim was sentenced to another nine years in prison, this time for an incredible sodomy charge, bringing his full sentence to fifteen years, which will keep him in prison for at least the next nine years, and out of politics for the next fourteen, thus posing no threat to the rule of Mahathir.